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specific conditions in corporate units that increase clarity of expectations
- 1. visibility of boundaries existence of entrance and exit rules
- 2. explicitness of goals
- 3. embedding of a corporate unit in a clearly differentiated institutional domain with an explicit ideology
- 4. explicitness of the vertical and horizontal divisions of labor
- 5. formality of the structure within the corporate unit
- 6. explicitness of norms attached to positions in the division of labor as well as consistency between norms and ideologies
- 7. degree of correlation between positions in the division of labor of a corporate unit and the distribution of members of categoric units
specific conditions in categoric units that increase the clarity of expectations
- 1. discreteness of boundaries defining categoric membership
- 2. degree of consensus over relative evaluations of categoric units in broader society
- 3. embedding of categoric units within the stratification system
- 4. homogeneity among members of a categoric unit
- 5. degree of correlation between membership in one categoric unit with memberships in other categoric units
- 6. degree of correlation of categoric unit membership with positions in the vertical and horizontal divisions of labor of corporate units within clearly differentiated institutional domains
phenomenology of roles, role-taking/making
Individuals assume that gestures constitute a syndrome of signs marking and embodying a role and they are motivated to discover each other's roles. Once role-taking allows individuals to discover this underlying role, role-making is orchestrated so that cooperation can ensue.
How does clarity in situational encounters affect role taking/making and status taking/making?
People situation-take before they role-take and role-make; they size up the meanings of space as a first step in an encounter, and if they make a misstep at this early stage of the encounter, all other forces driving the formation of encounters are thrown off.
widely known roles that are revealed by sets of gestures that are readily perceived and understood
2 or more preassembled roles that are spliced together in certain situations
"syndromes" that can be attached to almost any other role
sets of behaviors that are expected from individuals of a certain categoric unit; carried from situation to situation and emitted, typically along with another role
verification of roles
Individuals seek to have their roles verified by others because it is through behaviors that transactional needs are realized. Role-identities are tied explicitly to others’ verification of the role presented.
networks (density and equivalence)
The more dense the ties among positions, the greater will be the effects of status on the initial flow of interaction. Individuals standing at the same place in a network will often have high rates of interaction; or if they stand at structurally equivalent positions in different networks they will exhibit relative ease with each other when they meet in an encounter.
What aspects of categoric units affects the culture of moral evaluation always attached to categoric units?
Categoric units take on more visibility and salience when they are correlated with positions in the division of labor and locations in the class system. Also, an ethnic subpopulation that is distinctive by virtue of its history and culture.
What is normatizing of an encounter?
to bring about a specific set of expectations states that emerge in all encounters as individuals invoke the cultural systems, typically attached to corporate and categoric units
Processes in normatizing an encounter
- Justice Rules
- Feeling and display rules
- developing expectations by:
- a. placing self and others in categoric units
- b. determining an activity as work-practical, social, or ceremonial
- c. determining if others are to be treated as personages, persons, or intimates
- developing expectations by determining what is to be included and excluded in an interaction, particularly dealing with:
- values and evaluative beliefs
- persons to be included and their distribution of others in space
- portions of bodies and biographies to be displayed
- stages and props used
- categoric and corporate units used as a reference point
developing expectations for the forms of talk and body language used in an interaction
- developing expectations for the stereotypical sequences of gestures to be used in
- symbolizing and totemizing
- repairing the interaction
the process of calculating just shares of resources for self and others
Feeling and display rules
developing expectations for what emotions are to be experienced and expressed, the level of intensity and when emotions are to be experienced and expressed