Skeletal System

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  1. Functions of skeletal system
    • ~Framework
    • ~Protection of internal organs
    • ~Levers for movement
    • ~Produce blood cells
    • ~Store calcium
  2. # of bones in body
  3. Axial
    • Axis - main trunk of the body
    • skull, spinal column, ribs, breastbone
  4. Appendicular
    • Appendages  -extremities
    • shoulder girdle, arms, pelvic girdle, legs
  5. skull function
    protect the brain
  6. cranium
    surrounds the brain
  7. maxilla
    upper jaw
  8. mandible
    lower jaw
  9. sutures
    areas where cranial bones join together
  10. sinuses
    air spaces in the cranial bones
  11. foramina
    tiny holes in bones that allow passage of nerves and blood vessels
  12. spinal column functions
    protect spinal cord; support head + trunk
  13. # of total vertebrae
  14. cervical
    7 vertebrae found in the neck
  15. thoracic
    12 vertebrae found in the upper back
  16. lumbar
    5 vertebrae found in the lower back
  17. sacrum and coccyx
  18. intervertebral discs
    cartilage found between the vertebrae in the spinal column
  19. rib cage funtion
    protects <3 and lungs
  20. # of pairs of ribs
    • 12 pairs
    • connected to the sternum and the vertebrae by cartilage
  21. true ribs
    top 7 pairs - attached individually to the sternum
  22. false ribs
    • bottom 5 pairs
    • ~first 3 attach to cartilage of rib #7
    • ~bottom 2, known as floating ribs, have no anterior attachment; only dorsal attachment to vertebrae
  23. sternum
  24. xiphoid process
    inferior end of sternum
  25. clavicle
    collar bones
  26. scapulas
    shoulder blades
  27. radius
    lateral bone of lower arm
  28. ulna
    medial bone of lower arm
  29. humerus
    upper arm
  30. carpals
    wrist bones
  31. metacarpals
    palm of hand
  32. phalanges
    fingers and toes
  33. ilium
    superior end of pelvic girdle
  34. ischium
    inferior end of pelvic girdle
  35. symphysis pubis
    where hip bones form a fixed joint at anterior midline
  36. foramen
    larger holes in bones that allow passage of blood vessels + nerves
  37. femur
  38. patella
    knee cap
  39. tibia
    medial bone of lower leg; shin
  40. fibula
    lateral bone of lower leg
  41. tarsals
    ankle bones
  42. metatarsals
    instep or arch of foot
  43. calcaneous
  44. epyphysis
    end of bone
  45. diaphysis
    shaft of bone
  46. cartilage
    cushions end of bones at joints
  47. red marrow
    produces red blood cells
  48. spongy bone
    contains red marrow
  49. medullary canal
    cavity in the diaphysis
  50. compact bone
    hard part of the bone
  51. endosteum
    membrane that lines the medullary canal
  52. yellow marrow
    fat cells
  53. periosteum
    membrane that covers bone, site of new bone growth
  54. joints
    sires where two or more bones join together
  55. ligaments
    connect bones to bones
  56. tendons
    connect muscles to bones
  57. fascia
    thin but very tough connective tissue that covers every muscle and organ
  58. diarthrotic joint
    freely moveable (ball and socket, hinge, pivot, gliding)
  59. amphiarthrotic joint
    slightly moveable (vertebrae, symphysis pubis, sacroiliac joints)
  60. synarthrotic jointss
    immovable (cranium)
  61. osteoarthritis
    degeneration/hypertrophy of bone and erosion of the cartilage at a joint
  62. rheumatoid arthritis
    autoimmune; inflammation of connective tissues at a joint
  63. osteoporosis
    bones become brittle and weak
  64. fracture
    break or crack in bone
  65. reduction
    process of putting bone back into its proper alignment
  66. closed reduction
    reduction using cast or splint to maintain position til fracture heals
  67. open reduction
    surgical repair of bone; often involves pins, plates, implanted devices
  68. dislocation
    separation of a bone from its normal position at a joint
  69. sprain
    soft tissue injury at a joint
  70. bone scan
    radioactive material is ingested and machine scans body
  71. joint aspiration
    removal of excess fluid from a joint with a needle
  72. bone marrow biopsy
    needle is used to extract small amount of bone marrow for microscopic examination
  73. arthroscopy
    visual examination of a joint using a special instrument that contains a light and a camera
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Skeletal System
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