Learning and Motivation Ch2

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Learning and Motivation Ch2
2010-06-24 00:38:28
Learning Ch2

Learning and Motivation Ch2
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  1. Name Aritotle's three priciples of Association:
    • 1. Contiguity
    • 2. Similarity
    • 3. Contrast
  2. _______________ : the more closely together in space or time two items occur, the more likely the association.
  3. ______________: thought of one conept often leads to the thought of a similar concept.
  4. ____________: an item often leads to the thought of its opposite.
  5. According to James Mills, When two or more simple sensations are repleatedly presented together, a product of union may produce a ______________.
    Complex Idea
  6. According to James Mills, When Complex Ideas combine they form ___________.
    Duplex Ideas
  7. Name Thomas Brown's NINE Secondary Principles of Association:
    • 1. length of time
    • 2. liveliness
    • 3. frequency
    • 4. recently
    • 5. Free from Strong Associations
    • 6. Constitutional Differences
    • 7. Emotional State
    • 8. State of the Body
    • 9. Prior Habits
  8. He used nonsense syllables in his memory experiments.
    He proposed the concept of savings
    He confermed Brown's Secondary Principles of Association
    Backward Association
  9. What are some of Ebbinghaus' Major Findings:
    • 1. Correlation b/w list length and study time
    • 2. Overlearning: Repetitions strengthens the association
    • 3. The forgetting curve
    • 4. Association strength dependent upon proximity
    • 5. The concept of Backward Association
  10. Specialized cells that transmit information
  11. The neuron consists of: (Name the Parts of The Neuron)
    • 1. Cell Body
    • 2. nucleous
    • 3. Dendrites
    • 4. Axons
    • 5. Axon Terminal
  12. the part of the neuron that contains the nucleous, which regulates the basic metabolic functions of the cell
    cell body
  13. A long, branch like part of a neuron that transmits electrical pulses, or action potentials, when the neuron is stimulated
  14. enlarged structures at the ends of the axon that release chemical transmitters that stimulate the dendrites of other neurons.
    Axon Terminals
  15. the three major components of a neuron are:
    • Cell body
    • Dendrites
    • Axons
  16. The ______________ regulates the basic metabilic fuctions of a neuron
  17. ___________ are a branchlike structure on the receptive side of a neuron that is sensitive to transmitters released by the axon terminals of other neurons
  18. Both the ____________ and the _____________ are receptive to chemicals called transmitters that are released by other neurons.
    Dendrites, Cell Body
  19. These Transmitters produce ___________ and _________ in the postsynaptic cell
    excitation, inhibition
  20. True or False
    A neuron's firing rate reflects the combined influences of all its excitatory and inhibitory inputs.
  21. ___________ are specialized neurons designed to break down incomming stimuli into simple sensations.
    (it responds to sensory stimuli, either from internal bodily sensations such as muscle tension and balance)
  22. Name Five Types of Receptors:
    • 1. Tactile
    • 2. Taste
    • 3. Auditory
    • 4. Olfactory
    • 5. Visual
  23. True or False
    Very Specialized Neurons in our body are able to pick up shapes, angles, and degrees.
  24. What are the three theories of Learning?
    • 1. Chemichal Changes
    • 2. Growth of New Synapses
    • 3. Growth of New Neurons
  25. True or False
    Previous researchers believed no new neurons appeared after infancy
  26. TRUE or FALSE
    Stidies have NOT found new neurons in adult monkeys
  27. True or False
    There is some evidence that clinical depression may be associated with low levels of neurogenesis.
  28. _______________ is highly involved in learning.
    The Cerebral Cortex
  29. ______________ is the growth of new neurons:
  30. ____________ is the branching of Dendrites.
  31. Continuing to practice a response after performance is apparently perfect, which often results in stronger or more accurate performance in a delayed test:
    This term came from Ebbinghaus' Studies....