Clin Pathology I; Test Review 1
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viscous fluid made up of a cellular portion and a fluid portion (plasma)
What are the 3 components of the Cellular portion of blood?
- 1. Erythrocytes – Nickname Red Blood cells “RBC” – over 99% are RBCs
- 2. Leukocytes – White Blood cells “WBC”
- 3. Thrombocytes - platelets
What is the fluid portion of blood called?
What are the 3 components of the fluid portion?
- 1. Clotting factors
- 2. Electrolytes
- 3. Water
- The fluid portion of blood without clotting factors
- Minor elements with a charge
What are the 6 elements of electrolytes and their counts?
- 1. Sodium (Na+) = 145 mEq/L
- 2. Chloride (Cl-) = 110-115 mEq/L
- 3. Calcium (Ca++) = 5 mEq/L
- 4. Potassium (K+) = 4.5 mEq/L
- 5. Phosphates (PO4) = 3 mEq/L
- 6. Magnesium (Mg++) = 2 mEq/L
What carries oxygen?
Hemoglobin – RBCs for cellular respiration
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6H2O 6CO2 + energy used to make ATP
________ filters toxins out of the blood. In order to filter you need adequate water pressure which is provided by ________.
What are 3 characteristics of RBCs?
- 1. Anisocytosis
- 2. Polychromasia
- 3. Reticulocytes
Define Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
The ratio or percentage of RBCs to the total blood volume
Define the following terms:
- Central pallor: dogs normally have an area with no stain
- Hypochromasia: less than normal color/large central pallor
- Rouleaux: stacked like coins
What are 4 Characteristics of Monocytes?
- 1. Large
- 2. Blue cytoplasm
- 3. Vacuoles
- 4. Indented nucleus
Define the following terms:
- Poikilocytosis: variation in shape
- Dacryocytes: tear drop shaped
- Keratocyte: looks like a bite out of a cookie
- Schistocyte: fragments of RBC that explode
Define the following terms:
- Spherocytes: small darker staining cells caused by auto immune
- Target cells: nuclear remnant looks like a target
- Heinz bodies: cause destruction of RBCs associated with toxicities – found in poisioning. Common in onion – toxicity
- Stomatocyte: pumpkin smile
- Metarubricyte: nucleated RBCs – looks like a fried egg
- Spherocytes: small darker – only seen with auto immune hemolytic anemia
Target cells are also called
Leptocytes or codocytes
- Study of iron, hemoglobin and blood
- Reduction of red blood cells (RBCs)
What are 4 tests that should be run prior to surgery?
- WBC count
- Liver function (ALT – previously called SGPT)
- Kidney function test (BUN)
What are 4 things that are not considered toxins?
- everything else is a toxin
The nephron is made up of what 2 components and what are their jobs?
- 1. Glomerulus – filters toxins from the blood
- 2. Tubules – mainly for hydration
What are 2 signs of dehydration?
- Lethargic because there are not enough RBCs to carry hemoglobin/oxygen;
- pale mucous membranes – white
What are the Normal PCV for the following?
Cold Blooded Horses:
(Cowpony, Clydesdale, Belgium, Percheron)
Hot Blooded Horses:
(Arabian, Thoroughbred, American Saddlebred, 5 gated horses)
- Dogs: 40-45
- Cats: 37
- Cattle: 35
- Cold Blooded Horses: 35
- Hot Blooded Horses: 42
Where does Erythropoiesis takes place?
- RBC production
- In the bone marrow.
- Hormone produced in the kidneys
What are 5 Nutrients required to produce hemoglobin?
- 1. Minerals - Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Cobalt (Co)
- 2. Proteins – high quality – all essential amino acids. TDN = Total Digestible Nitrogen
- 3. Water
- 4. Water soluble vitamins/B-complex
- 5. Source of calories
What are 6 B-complex vitamins?
- Thiamin (B1)
- Riboflavin (B2)
- Folic Acid
What are the water soluble vitamins?
A, D, E & K
movement of blood from the peripheral circulation to the internal circulation.
What are 3 things that can cause a decrease in PCV?
- 1. Blood loss due to trauma
- 2. Hemolytic anemia – destruction of RBCs
- 3. Lack of RBC production (Erythropoiesis)
What are 5 things that can cause a lack of nutrients?
- 1. Blood loss through Ancylostoma (hookworms) feeding on the blood and mucosal lining
- 2. Tapeworm/Roundworms take nutrients
- 3. Poor diet – should be #1 (Quality/Quantity)
- 4. Mouth Diseases – gingivitis
- 5. Gastroenteritis – eating what they shouldn’t. Table scraps should not be more than 10% of diet.
Normal dogs have what percentage of reticulocytes?
.5% - 1%
Blood transfusions should not be routinely given because it affects the _____________. Blood transfusions should only be given to Dogs with a PCV of ______, or cats with a PCV of ________.
- negative feedback and may cause the body to stop erythropoiesis
- 12 or less
- 10 or less
List the normal values for the following:
- Band neutrophils: 2-6
- Segmented neutrophils: 60-80
- Lymphocytes: 18-25
- Monocytes: 4-9
- Eosinophils: 0-2
- Basophils: 0-2
What is the lifespan of the RBC?
What is the lifespan of segmented neutrophils?
What is the Normal WBC count?
What are 3 causes of elevated eosinophils?
If you have increased eosinophils, what test should be required?
- 1. External or internal parasites 2. internal or external skin problems or 3. allergies
- Heartworm test
What are 3 signs of Chronic blood loss in regenerative anemias?
- 1. Pale mucous membranes
- 2. Edema/swelling due to fluids
- 3. Heart murmur because blood is to thin
What are 5 diseases that can cause chronic anemia in regenerative anemia?
- 1) Gastrointestinal Tract - Internal bleeding into the digestive tract – hidden in the feces or External bleeding into the abdomen – absorbed back into circulation or blood in lymph
- 2) Neoplasms/Benign Tumors - in a body cavity (somewhere in the abdomen or thorax)
- 3) Vitamin K deficiencies /diet; Prothrombin deficiencies/genetic Interferes with the ability for blood to clot
- 4) Hemophilia A - Common in dogs and foals
- 5) Thrombocytopenia – DIC is a type of thrombocytopenia
What are 4 Common causes of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
- a. orthopedic surgery especially long bones
- b. Post heartworm treatment
- c. Heat stroke #1 in Harris county/Houston
- d. Blood Loss Trauma due to cat fights
What are 3 categories of Blood sucking parasites that would be included as causing regenerative anemia?
- 1. Internal – hookworm (Ancylostoma, Bunostomum) and flukes. Hooks can be deadly in puppies
- 2. External – fleas and ticks, Poultry lice
- 3. Coccidia –survives on concrete/cement)
What are 3 clinical signs of Acute type of regenerative anemias?
- a) Icterus (yellow mucous membranes in mouth, anus and external pinnae
- b) Hemoglobliurea – presence of hemasideria in urine. Hemosideric the pigment of the hemoglobulin is maroon
- c) Increased temperature
What are 4 causes of the acute type of regenerative anemia?
- a) Trauma – Hit by car (HBC) – Surgical procedures
- b) Bracken fern poisoning contains anticoagulant. Animal is bleeding from every orifice nose, mouth, ears, eyes, urinary tract and anus. This is usually seen in times of draught.
- c) Sweet Clover Poisoning – bruises/harms clover by way of a) frost or b) trampling. The poison is dicoumarol
- d) Dicoumarin (Rat Poison) Warfarin
What are 2 ways that hemolytic regenerative anemias are transmitted?
- a. Animal to animal through direct contact like rabies, aerosol like distemper and kennel cough
- b. Vectors – anything that is capable of transmitting disease
What are 2 types of Vectors that are capable of transmitting disease?
- i. Fomite vectors – not alive i.e. needles, syringes, curry combs, feed buckets, water bowls, utensils, toys, knives, forks, spoons, drinking glasses. Wash with soap and water
- ii. Alive vectors – tick; fleas - transmits the blood (biological/mechanical vectors)
What are 6 transmissible hemolytic regenerative anemias?
- 1. Anaplasmosis
- 2. Babesia - bovine
- 3. Babesia caballi - equine (California)
- 4. Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
- 5. Ehrlichia canis
- 6. Mycoplasma hemofelis/Hemobartonella felis
What are 7 Toxins that can cause regenerative anemia?
- 1. Copper poisoning – Found in Colorado
- 2. Lead (Pb) poisoning
- 3. Phenothiazine – old timey equine dewormer
- 4. Napholine is found in mothballs
- 5. Methylene blue – new methylene blue is blue dye or stain
- 6. Onion toxicity - in Dogs sign is an increased number of Heinz bodies
- 7. Snake venom usually causes elevated heart rate and a shallow heart beat in humans. In dogs, horses & cows the #1 threat is the bacteria in the snakes mouth
Lead poisoning in Dogs is called ____.
_________ get a lead line on the gums
- Canine Plumbism
- Horses and humans
Lead is found in the environment in what 3 things?
- a) exterior paint/anything colorful (reds, yellows, orange, fluorescent green) pottery
- b) tile – linoleum/toe strip
- c) Shingles/roof
What are 3 Signs of Lead Poisoning in dogs?
- GI – colic
- Painful abdomen
- Sometimes vomition
Lead poisoning blood work shows what 3 characteristics?
- Above normal reticulocytes
- Normal PCV to slightly low (38)
- Often see target cells
What are 3 ways Cattle can get lead poisoning?
What are the signs?
- 1. lick/strip paint off fences and barns; 2. Chew on shingles 3. Discarded car/truck batteries.
- GI; CNS – circling due to blindness, partial paralysis.
What are 3 ways Horses can get lead poisoning?
What are the Lead poisoning signs?
- 1. Painted stalls, 2 batteries; 3. Lead pipe corrals and fences.
- Dull harsh hair coat, Effects CNS that causes circling due to blindness; lack of recognition; partial paralysis with stumbling gait. Horses become roarers because it affects the guttural pouch that start to flap and flutter.
What was the adjuvant which was toxic that was added to Phenothiazine – old timey equine dewormer?
Methylene results in what 2 different types of reticulocytes?
All gram positive bacteria produce ______ which can produce ________ which is an ________ bacteria.
- 1) redness
- 2) pain
- 3) fever
- 4) swelling #1 danger in horses with snake bites is suffocation
What are 3 Treatments for horse snake bite?
- 1) Give tetanus antitoxoid and tetanus bacterin because the biggest danger is from injection of Clostridium bacteria tetani
- 2) Anti-inflammatory (steroid) IV Dexamethasone 4cc bolus then 6-10cc slowly.
- 3) Flush the wound – hydrotherapy.
Caused by a blockage of blood flow which produces an anaerobic environment which results in cell death. With an anaerobic environment there is a lack of oxygen and a lack of cellular respiration. When cellular respiration stops you get cell death
What are 2 types of gangrene?
- 1. Dry – has no anaerobic bacteria – example frost bite. No exotoxins/wall of macrophages to try to maintain homeostasis.
- 2. Moist – has anaerobic bacteria with deadly exotoxins.
What are 2 types of Antigen-Antibody
Reaction seen in regenerative anemias?
- 1. Isoimmunization of newborn. Artificial insemination of dairy cattle – repeated use of the same sire
- 2. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia are also known as
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in clinics & Acquired Idiopathic Hemolytic Anemia.
What is one thing you do NOT want to give a to an IMHA animal?
Rh factor are only found in what 4 primates?
- 1. Humans
- 2. Gorillas
- 3. Chimpanzee
- 4. Orangutan
Primates are divided into:
- a) simiens (monkeys)
- b) anthropods (gorillas)
Negative Feedback/Feedback Inhibition is defined as
The product itself stops or prevents anymore production of the product.
Non-regenerative Anemia is defined as
What are 2 Characteristics of RBCs in Non-regenerative Anemia?
- Lack of or insufficient erythropoiesis (not enough RBC production)
- a) Normocytic (same size); b) Normochromic (same color)
What are 7 causes of Nutritional Non-regenerative Anemia?
- 1. Lack of calories
- 2. Poor quality of food – TDN not getting quality protein
- 3. Internal parasites – tapeworms & roundworms
- 4. Malabsorption problem – Inherited and the pace is too fast movement of the food thought the digestive tract.
- 5. Lack of digestive enzymes
- 6. Mineral deficiency - Iron, copper and cobalt
- 7. Vitamin deficiency
Certain Drugs - certain drugs can result in damage to the bone marrow resulting in _______ (a non-regenerative anemia)
What are 2 Human drugs?
What are 2 types of Dogs medication?
- Aplastic Anemia
- chloramphenicol; Chloromycetin
- anti cancer medication, Anti-viral medications
Myeloproliferative Disease is a disease
that destroys the __________.
#1 cause of _________.
Common for Cats is ________.
Dogs & Humans = ________ – always do x-ray lungs because it metastasizes
- bone marrow
- metastatic tumors
Glycogen is a complex ________. It is defined as the ____________.
- start or beginning of glucose
What is the #1 Stressor for cows?
cattle drive or hauling
All cats carry ________ and the organism is activated /caused by stressors.
What are 6 Stressors?
- Mycoplasma felis
- 1. Going to the vet clinic i) transport to the clinic; ii) procedure (#1 procedure spay/neuter/declaw) iii) boarding
- 2. Another disease
- 3. Queening
- 4. Cat fight
- 5. New cat or dog added to the household or death of housemate.
- 6. Heat
What are 4 Symptoms of Ehrlichia canis?
- 1. Gulf Coast with elevated temperature of 105 – 106 F. This is the #1 rule out for any animals with 105 – 106 F temperature.
- 2. Limb edema
- 3. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage – little hemorrhage on the limb, abdomen. Petechial are petite pinpoint hemorrhages – another cause of this is an over use of steroids
- 4. Epistaxis (nose bleed)
Ehrlichia canis is a ________ organism that is a ________
Where was it originally found?
1st reported case =
- Chlamydia; Protista
- In Southeast Asia/Vietnam
- military guard dogs (German Shepherd)
- 1963 in Singapore. Found in British German Shepherd dog (GSD)
EIA is a ________ that has no vaccination or cure. Spread through ________. It only takes 1 drop of blood to transmit
EIA is Caused by:
Texas recommendation is _______ because affected horses are __________.
Test for EIA is the _________.
EIA exists in 3 stages:
- mechanical vector
- i) Iatrogenically – dirty needles, feed buckets, curry combs, bits, halter, tack, blankets ii) Biting flies & Mosquitos
- euthanasia; reservoirs
- Coggins test
- 1. Chronic stage – the horse looks normal with no signs. Biphasic temperature. Increased temperature is because of poor nutrition, parasite load or stress/travel.
- 2. Subacute – 8 million RBC to 4 million start
- seeing anemia
- 3. Acute stage – same parameters push from Stage 2 to stage 3 – poor nutrition, parasite load, stress/travel. Results in Death
Babesia – Bovine Babesia caused by ______.
This was the 1st infection of ANY kind to be proven to have a _______ vector, the ______.
What are the 3 classes?
What is the sign?
- a) bovine tick (Boophilus annulatus) or b) piroplasmosis
- biological; antropods
- Class Insecta – flies; mosquito; and fleas
- Class Arachnida – ticks
- Class Crustacean
- Smith (MD) & Kilbourne (Vet)
What are 3 Biological Vector Diseases?
- 1. Malaria
- 2. Plague
- 3. Heartworms
Biological vector is __________
Protista called ___________
- Anopheles mosquito
Anaplasmosis is a disease that affects cattle. It is found in the _____.
Caused by _________
What are 3 types Anaplasmosis
What are 6 signs?
What are 2 ways that it is spread or caused?
- Rickettsia or Protista
- i) Anaplasma marginale; ii) A. centrale; iii) A. ova
- weakness, depression, anorexia. Hemolysis of the RBCs results in less hemoglobin and less oxygen to the cells. Pale mucous membranes after 4 days. Icterus within 3 days.
- i) Iatrogenically via dehorning equipment, castration equipment that were not sterilized. ii) Mechanical vector – through ticks (Boophilus annulatus) – It only takes one drop of blood
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