Clin Pathology I; Test Review 1

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Marytaylor
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247370
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Clin Pathology I; Test Review 1
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2013-11-17 19:38:43
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Vet Tech VTHT 2323
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Clin path
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  1. Define blood
    viscous fluid made up of a cellular portion and a fluid portion (plasma)
  2. What are the 3 components of the Cellular portion of blood?
    • 1. Erythrocytes – Nickname Red Blood cells “RBC” – over 99% are RBCs
    • 2. Leukocytes – White Blood cells “WBC”
    • 3. Thrombocytes - platelets
  3. What is the fluid portion of blood called?
    What are the 3 components of the fluid portion?
    • plasma
    • 1. Clotting factors
    • 2. Electrolytes
    • 3. Water
  4. Define Serum
    Define Electrolytes
    • The fluid portion of blood without clotting factors
    • Minor elements with a charge
  5. What are the 6 elements of electrolytes and their counts?
    • 1. Sodium (Na+) = 145 mEq/L
    • 2. Chloride (Cl-) = 110-115 mEq/L
    • 3. Calcium (Ca++) = 5 mEq/L
    • 4. Potassium (K+) = 4.5 mEq/L
    • 5. Phosphates (PO4) = 3 mEq/L
    • 6. Magnesium (Mg++) = 2 mEq/L
  6. What carries oxygen?
    Hemoglobin – RBCs for cellular respiration
  7. What is the formula for cellular respiration?
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6H2O 6CO2 + energy used to make ATP
  8. ________ filters toxins out of the blood. In order to filter you need adequate water pressure which is provided by ________.
    • Glomerus 
    • plasma
  9. What are 3 characteristics of RBCs?
    • 1. Anisocytosis
    • 2. Polychromasia
    • 3. Reticulocytes
  10. Define Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
    The ratio or percentage of RBCs to the total blood volume
  11. Define the following terms:
    Central pallor:
    Hypochromasia:
    Rouleaux:
    • Central pallor: dogs normally have an area with no stain
    • Hypochromasia: less than normal color/large central pallor
    • Rouleaux: stacked like coins
  12. What are 4 Characteristics of Monocytes?
    • 1. Large
    • 2. Blue cytoplasm
    • 3. Vacuoles 
    • 4. Indented nucleus
  13. Define the following terms:
    Poikilocytosis: 
    Dacryocytes: 
    Keratocyte: 
    Schistocyte:
    • Poikilocytosis: variation in shape
    • Dacryocytes: tear drop shaped
    • Keratocyte: looks like a bite out of a cookie
    • Schistocyte: fragments of RBC that explode
  14. Define the following terms:
    Spherocytes: 
    Target cells: 
    Heinz bodies: 
    Stomatocyte: 
    Metarubricyte: 
    Spherocytes:
    • Spherocytes: small darker staining cells caused by auto immune
    • Target cells: nuclear remnant looks like a target
    • Heinz bodies: cause destruction of RBCs associated with toxicities – found in poisioning. Common in onion – toxicity 
    • Stomatocyte: pumpkin smile
    • Metarubricyte: nucleated RBCs – looks like a fried egg
    • Spherocytes: small darker – only seen with auto immune hemolytic anemia
  15. Target cells are also called
    Leptocytes or codocytes
  16. Define Hematology
    Define Anemia
    • Study of iron, hemoglobin and blood
    • Reduction of red blood cells (RBCs)
  17. What are 4 tests that should be run prior to surgery?
    • PCV
    • WBC count
    • Liver function (ALT – previously called SGPT)
    • Kidney function test (BUN)
  18. What are 4 things that are not considered toxins?
    • Water
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
    • fats/lipids
    • everything else is a toxin
  19. The nephron is made up of what 2 components and what are their jobs?
    • 1. Glomerulus – filters toxins from the blood
    • 2. Tubules – mainly for hydration
  20. What are 2 signs of dehydration?
    • Lethargic because there are not enough RBCs to carry hemoglobin/oxygen;
    • pale mucous membranes – white
  21. What are the Normal PCV for the following?
    Dogs: 
    Cats: 
    Cattle: 
    Cold Blooded Horses:  
    (Cowpony, Clydesdale, Belgium, Percheron)
    Hot Blooded Horses: 
    (Arabian, Thoroughbred, American Saddlebred, 5 gated horses)
    • Dogs: 40-45
    • Cats: 37
    • Cattle: 35
    • Cold Blooded Horses: 35
    • Hot Blooded Horses: 42
  22. Define Erythropoiesis
    Where does Erythropoiesis takes place?
    Define Erythropoietin
    • RBC production
    • In the bone marrow.
    • Hormone produced in the kidneys
  23. What are 5 Nutrients required to produce hemoglobin?
    • 1. Minerals - Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and   Cobalt (Co)
    • 2. Proteins – high quality – all essential amino acids. TDN = Total Digestible Nitrogen
    • 3. Water
    • 4. Water soluble vitamins/B-complex
    • 5. Source of calories
  24. What are 6 B-complex vitamins?
    • Thiamin (B1)
    • Niacin
    • Riboflavin (B2)
    • Pyridoxine(B6)
    • Folic Acid
    • B12
  25. What are the water soluble vitamins?
    A, D, E & K
  26. Define Shock
    movement of blood from the peripheral circulation to the internal circulation.
  27. What are 3 things that can cause a decrease in PCV?
    • 1. Blood loss due to trauma
    • 2. Hemolytic anemia – destruction of RBCs
    • 3. Lack of RBC production (Erythropoiesis)
  28. What are 5 things that can cause a lack of nutrients?
    • 1. Blood loss through Ancylostoma (hookworms) feeding on the blood and mucosal lining
    • 2. Tapeworm/Roundworms take nutrients
    • 3. Poor diet – should be #1 (Quality/Quantity)
    • 4. Mouth Diseases – gingivitis
    • 5. Gastroenteritis – eating what they shouldn’t. Table scraps should not be more than 10% of diet.
  29. Normal dogs have what percentage of reticulocytes?
    .5% - 1%
  30. Blood transfusions should not be routinely given because it affects the _____________. Blood transfusions should only be given to Dogs with a PCV  of ______, or cats with a PCV of ________.
    • negative feedback and may cause the body to stop erythropoiesis
    • 12 or less
    • 10 or less
  31. List the normal values for the following:
    Band neutrophils: 
    Segmented neutrophils:            
    Lymphocytes:             
    Monocytes:                 
    Eosinophils:                 
    Basophils:
    • Band neutrophils: 2-6 
    • Segmented neutrophils: 60-80                   
    • Lymphocytes: 18-25                  
    • Monocytes: 4-9                        
    • Eosinophils: 0-2                        
    • Basophils: 0-2
  32. What is the lifespan of the RBC?
    What is the lifespan of segmented neutrophils?
    What is the Normal WBC count?
    • 120 days
    • 2-6 hours
    • 12,000
  33. What are 3 causes of elevated eosinophils?
    If you have increased eosinophils, what test should be required?
    • 1. External or internal parasites 2. internal or external skin problems or 3. allergies
    • Heartworm test
  34. What are 3 signs of Chronic blood loss in regenerative anemias?
    • 1. Pale mucous membranes
    • 2. Edema/swelling due to fluids
    • 3. Heart murmur because blood is to thin
  35. What are 5 diseases that can cause chronic anemia in regenerative anemia?
    • 1) Gastrointestinal Tract - Internal bleeding into the digestive tract – hidden in the feces or External bleeding into the abdomen – absorbed back into circulation or blood in lymph
    • 2) Neoplasms/Benign Tumors - in a body cavity (somewhere in the abdomen or thorax)
    • 3) Vitamin K deficiencies /diet; Prothrombin deficiencies/genetic Interferes with the ability for blood to clot
    • 4) Hemophilia A - Common in dogs and foals
    • 5) Thrombocytopenia – DIC is a type of thrombocytopenia
  36. What are 4 Common causes of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    • a. orthopedic surgery especially long bones
    • b. Post heartworm treatment
    • c. Heat stroke #1 in Harris county/Houston
    • d. Blood Loss Trauma due to cat fights
  37. What are 3 categories of Blood sucking parasites that would be included as causing regenerative anemia?
    • 1. Internal – hookworm (Ancylostoma, Bunostomum) and flukes. Hooks can be deadly in puppies
    • 2. External – fleas and ticks, Poultry lice
    • 3. Coccidia –survives on concrete/cement)
  38. What are 3 clinical signs of Acute type of regenerative anemias? 
    • a) Icterus (yellow mucous membranes in mouth, anus and external pinnae
    • b) Hemoglobliurea – presence of hemasideria in urine.  Hemosideric the pigment of the hemoglobulin is maroon
    • c) Increased temperature
  39. What are 4 causes of the acute type of regenerative anemia?
    • a) Trauma – Hit by car (HBC) – Surgical procedures
    • b) Bracken fern poisoning contains anticoagulant. Animal is bleeding from every orifice nose, mouth, ears, eyes, urinary tract and anus. This is usually seen in times of draught.
    • c) Sweet Clover Poisoning – bruises/harms clover by way of a) frost or b) trampling. The poison is dicoumarol
    • d) Dicoumarin (Rat Poison) Warfarin
  40. What are 2 ways that hemolytic regenerative anemias are transmitted?
    • a. Animal to animal through direct contact like rabies, aerosol like distemper and kennel cough
    • b. Vectors – anything that is capable of transmitting disease
  41. What are 2 types of Vectors that are capable of transmitting disease?
    • i. Fomite vectors – not alive i.e. needles, syringes, curry combs, feed buckets, water bowls, utensils, toys, knives, forks, spoons, drinking glasses.  Wash with soap and water
    • ii. Alive vectors – tick; fleas - transmits the blood (biological/mechanical vectors)
  42. What are 6 transmissible hemolytic regenerative anemias?
    • 1. Anaplasmosis
    • 2. Babesia - bovine
    • 3. Babesia caballi - equine (California)
    • 4. Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
    • 5. Ehrlichia canis
    • 6. Mycoplasma hemofelis/Hemobartonella felis
  43. What are 7 Toxins that can cause regenerative anemia?
    • 1. Copper poisoning – Found in Colorado
    • 2. Lead (Pb) poisoning
    • 3. Phenothiazine – old timey equine dewormer
    • 4. Napholine is found in mothballs
    • 5. Methylene blue – new methylene blue is blue dye or stain
    • 6. Onion toxicity - in Dogs sign is an increased number of Heinz bodies
    • 7. Snake venom usually causes elevated heart rate and a shallow heart beat in humans. In dogs, horses & cows the #1 threat is the bacteria in the snakes mouth
  44. Lead poisoning in Dogs is called ____.
    _________ get a lead line on the gums
    • Canine Plumbism
    • Horses and humans
  45. Lead is found in the environment in what 3 things?
    • a) exterior paint/anything colorful (reds, yellows, orange, fluorescent green) pottery
    • b) tile – linoleum/toe strip
    • c) Shingles/roof
  46. What are 3 Signs of Lead Poisoning in dogs?
    • GI – colic
    • Painful abdomen
    • Sometimes vomition
  47. Lead poisoning blood work shows what 3 characteristics? 
    • Above normal reticulocytes
    • Normal PCV to slightly low (38)
    • Often see target cells
  48. What are 3 ways Cattle can get lead poisoning? 
    What are the signs?
    • 1. lick/strip paint off fences and barns; 2. Chew on shingles 3. Discarded car/truck batteries.
    • GI; CNS – circling due to blindness, partial paralysis.
  49. What are 3 ways Horses can get lead poisoning? 
    What are the Lead poisoning signs?
    • 1. Painted stalls, 2 batteries; 3. Lead pipe corrals and fences.
    • Dull harsh hair coat, Effects CNS that causes circling due to blindness; lack of recognition; partial paralysis with stumbling gait. Horses become roarers because it affects the guttural pouch that start to flap and flutter.
  50. What was the adjuvant which was toxic that was added to Phenothiazine – old timey equine dewormer? 
    Diphenylamine. 
  51. Methylene results in what 2 different types of reticulocytes?
    • 1) aggregate
    • 2) punctate
  52. All gram positive bacteria produce ______ which can produce ________ which is an ________ bacteria. 
    • exotoxins
    • gangrene
    • anaerobic 
  53. Inflammation causes
    • 1) redness
    • 2) pain
    • 3) fever
    • 4) swelling #1 danger in horses with snake bites is suffocation
  54. What are 3 Treatments for horse snake bite?
    • 1) Give tetanus antitoxoid and tetanus bacterin because the biggest danger is from injection of Clostridium bacteria tetani
    • 2) Anti-inflammatory (steroid) IV Dexamethasone 4cc bolus then 6-10cc slowly.
    • 3) Flush the wound – hydrotherapy.
  55. Defined Gangrene
    Caused by a blockage of blood flow which produces an anaerobic environment which results in cell death. With an anaerobic environment there is a lack of oxygen and a lack of cellular respiration. When cellular respiration stops you get cell death
  56. What are 2 types of gangrene?
    • 1. Dry – has no anaerobic bacteria – example frost bite. No exotoxins/wall of macrophages to try to maintain homeostasis.
    • 2. Moist – has anaerobic bacteria with deadly exotoxins.
  57. What are 2 types of Antigen-Antibody
    Reaction seen in regenerative anemias?
    • 1. Isoimmunization of newborn. Artificial insemination of dairy cattle – repeated use of the same sire
    • 2. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  58. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia are also known as 
    Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in clinics & Acquired Idiopathic Hemolytic Anemia. 
  59. What is one thing you do NOT want to give a to an IMHA animal?
    vaccinations
  60. Rh factor are only found in what 4 primates? 
    • 1. Humans
    • 2. Gorillas
    • 3. Chimpanzee
    • 4. Orangutan
  61. Primates are divided into:
    • a) simiens (monkeys)
    • b) anthropods (gorillas)
  62. Negative Feedback/Feedback Inhibition is defined as 
    The product itself stops or prevents anymore production of the product. 
  63. Non-regenerative Anemia is defined as
    What are 2 Characteristics of RBCs in Non-regenerative Anemia?
    • Lack of or insufficient erythropoiesis (not enough RBC production)
    • a) Normocytic (same size); b) Normochromic (same color)
  64. What are 7 causes of Nutritional Non-regenerative Anemia?
    • 1. Lack of calories
    • 2. Poor quality of food – TDN not getting quality protein
    • 3. Internal parasites – tapeworms & roundworms
    • 4. Malabsorption problem – Inherited and the pace is too fast movement of the food thought the digestive tract.
    • 5. Lack of digestive enzymes
    • 6. Mineral deficiency - Iron, copper and cobalt
    • 7. Vitamin deficiency
  65. Certain Drugs - certain drugs can result in damage to the bone marrow resulting in _______ (a non-regenerative anemia)
    What are 2 Human drugs?
    What are 2 types of Dogs medication?
    • Aplastic Anemia
    • chloramphenicol; Chloromycetin
    • anti cancer medication, Anti-viral medications
  66. Myeloproliferative Disease is a disease
    that destroys the __________.
    #1 cause of _________. 
    Common for Cats is ________.
    Dogs & Humans = ________ – always do x-ray lungs because it metastasizes
    • bone marrow
    • metastatic tumors
    • Lymphosarcoma
    • Osteosarcomas 
  67. Glycogen is a complex ________. It is defined as the ____________.
    • monosaccharide
    • start or beginning of glucose
  68. What is the #1 Stressor for cows? 
    cattle drive or hauling
  69. All cats carry ________ and the organism is activated /caused by stressors.
    What are 6 Stressors?
    • Mycoplasma felis
    • 1. Going to the vet clinic i) transport to the clinic; ii) procedure (#1 procedure spay/neuter/declaw) iii) boarding 
    • 2. Another disease
    • 3. Queening
    • 4. Cat fight
    • 5. New cat or dog added to the household or death of housemate.
    • 6. Heat
  70. What are 4 Symptoms of Ehrlichia canis?
    • 1. Gulf Coast with elevated temperature of 105 – 106 F. This is the #1 rule out for any animals with 105 – 106 F temperature.
    • 2. Limb edema
    • 3. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage – little hemorrhage on the limb, abdomen. Petechial are petite pinpoint hemorrhages – another cause of this is an over use of steroids
    • 4. Epistaxis (nose bleed)
  71. Ehrlichia canis  is a ________ organism that is a ________
    Where was it originally found?
    Contracted by 
    1st reported case =
    • Chlamydia; Protista
    • In Southeast Asia/Vietnam
    • military guard dogs (German Shepherd)
    • 1963 in Singapore. Found in British German Shepherd dog (GSD) 
  72. EIA is a ________ that has no vaccination or cure. Spread through ________. It only takes 1 drop of blood to transmit
    EIA is Caused by:
    Texas recommendation is _______ because affected horses are __________.
    Test for EIA is the _________.
    EIA exists in 3 stages: 
    • retrovirus
    • mechanical vector
    • i) Iatrogenically – dirty needles, feed buckets, curry combs, bits, halter, tack, blankets ii) Biting flies & Mosquitos
    • euthanasia; reservoirs
    • Coggins test
    • 1. Chronic stage – the horse looks normal with no signs. Biphasic temperature. Increased temperature is because of poor nutrition, parasite load or stress/travel.
    • 2. Subacute – 8 million RBC to 4 million start
    • seeing anemia
    • 3. Acute stage – same parameters push from Stage 2 to stage 3 – poor nutrition, parasite load, stress/travel. Results in Death
  73. Babesia – Bovine Babesia caused by ______.
    This was the 1st infection of ANY kind to be proven to have a _______ vector, the ______.
    What are the 3 classes?
    Who discovered?
    What is the sign?
    • a) bovine tick (Boophilus annulatus) or b) piroplasmosis
    • biological; antropods
    • Class Insecta – flies; mosquito; and fleas
    • Class Arachnida – ticks
    • Class Crustacean
    • Smith (MD) & Kilbourne (Vet)
    • Malaise 
  74. What are 3 Biological Vector Diseases?
    • 1. Malaria 
    • 2. Plague
    • 3. Heartworms 
  75. Malaria –
    Biological vector is __________ 
    Protista called ___________
    • Anopheles mosquito
    • plasmodium
  76. Anaplasmosis is a disease that affects cattle. It is found in the _____.
    Caused by _________
    What are 3 types Anaplasmosis
    What are 6 signs?
    What are 2 ways that it is spread or caused?
    • RBC
    • Rickettsia or Protista
    • i) Anaplasma marginale; ii) A. centrale; iii) A. ova
    • weakness, depression, anorexia. Hemolysis of the RBCs results in less hemoglobin and less oxygen to the cells. Pale mucous membranes after 4 days. Icterus within 3 days.
    • i) Iatrogenically via dehorning equipment, castration equipment that were not sterilized. ii) Mechanical vector – through ticks (Boophilus annulatus) – It only takes one drop of blood

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