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2013-11-17 18:43:51

Chapters 5, 6, & 7
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  1. the fundamental model of particle behavior in the gas phase
    Kinetic Molecular Theory
  2. a law stating that the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure exerted if the temperature and number of moles of a gas are constant
    Boyle's Law
  3. a gas in which the particles do not interact and the volume of the individual gas particles is assumed to be negligible
    ideal gas
  4. a law stating that for an ideal gas the product of pressure and volume is proportional to the product of the number of moles of the gas and its temperature; the proportionality constant for an ideal gas is symbolized by R
    ideal gas law
  5. the force per unit area
  6. a law stating that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas, assuming that the pressure and number of moles of gas are constant
    Charles's Law
  7. an equation that describes the behavior of far gas when volume, pressure, and temperature may change simultaneously
    combined gas law
  8. a law that states that the volume is directly proportional the the number of moles of gas particles, assuming that the pressure and temperature are constant
    Avogadro's Law
  9. a solid with no organized, regular structure
    amorphous solid
  10. a device for measuring pressure
  11. the conversion of a gas to a liquid
  12. a collection of atoms held together by covalent bonding
    covalent solid
  13. a solid having a regular repeating atomic structure
    crystalline solid
  14. also called the law of partial pressures; states that the total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
    Dalton's Law
  15. attractive forces between polar molecules
    dipole-dipole interactions
  16. the conversion of a liquid to a gas below the boiling point of the liquid
  17. the attractive fore between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom and another atom containing an unshared pair of electrons
    hydrogen bonding
  18. a solid composed of positive and negative ions in a regular three-dimensional crystalline arrangement
    ionic solid
  19. weak attractive forces between molecules that result from short-lived dipoles that occur because of the continuous movement of electrons in the molecules
    London forces
  20. the volume occupied by 1 mole of a substance
    molar volume
  21. the pressure exerted by one component of a gas mixture
    partial pressure
  22. a process whereby some molecules in the solid state convert directly to the gaseous state
  23. a measure of the strength of the attractive forces at the surface of a liquid
    surface tension
  24. a measure of the resistance to flow of a substance at constant temperature
  25. any solution in which the solvent is water
    aqueous solution
  26. a property of a solution that is dependent only on the concentration of solute particles
    colligative property
  27. a heterogeneous mixture of solute particles in a solvent; distribution of solute particles is not uniform because of the size of the particles
    colloidal suspension
  28. a measure of the quantity of a substance contained in a specified volume of solution
  29. region where concentration decreases over distance
    concentration gradient
  30. the removal of waste material via transport across a membrane
  31. net movement of solute or solvent molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
  32. a material that dissolves in water to produce a solution that conducts an electrical current
  33. the number of grams of an ion corresponding to Avogadro's number of electrical charges
  34. a law stating that the number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas
    Henry's Law
  35. the more concentrated solution of 2
    hypertonic solution
  36. the more dilute solution of 2
    hypotonic solution
  37. same solute concentration of 2 solutions
    isotonic solution
  38. a substance that, when dissolved in water, produces a solution that does not conduct an electrical current
  39. net flow of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient
  40. the net force with which water enters a solution through a semipermeable membrane
    osmotic pressure
  41. a component of a solution that is present in lesser quantity than the solvent
  42. a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances
  43. the solution component that is present in the largest quantity
  44. the arrangement of atoms at the top of the potential energy barrier as a reaction proceeds
    activated complex
  45. the threshold energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction
    activation energy
  46. the measurement of heat energy changes during a chemical reaction
  47. the state that exists when the rate of change in the concentration of products and reactants is equal, resulting in no net concentration change
    dynamic equilibrium
  48. a chemical or physical change in which energy is absorbed
    endothermic reaction
  49. term that represents heat energy
  50. the measure of the statistical distribution of energy in a system
  51. a chemical or physical change that releases energy
    exothermic reaction
  52. the combined contribution of entropy and enthalpy for a chemical reaction
    free energy
  53. the amount of energy derived from a given mass of material
    free volume
  54. the energy transferred between a system and its surrounding due to a temperature difference between system and surroundings
  55. the study of rates of chemical reactions
  56. a law stating that when a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium shifts in the direction that minimizes the disturbance
    LeChatlier's Principle
  57. equivalent to 1 kilocalorie
    nutritional Calorie
  58. the proportionality constant relates the rate of a reaction and the concentration of reactants
    rate constant
  59. expresses the rate of a reaction in terms of reactant concentration and a rate constant
    rate law
  60. a reaction that will proceed in either direction, reactants to products or products to reactants
    reversible reaction
  61. the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g or a substance of 1 degree Celsius
    specific heat
  62. the branch of science that deals with the relationship between energies of systems, work, and heat