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2013-12-02 18:54:51

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  1. what is another word for taking someones vital signs
    list examples of this physical assessment
    • cardinal signs
    • body temp
    • pulse
    • respiration
    •  blood pressure
  2. where is body temperature controlled by
    changes in the bodys temperature occur when
    • hypothalamus in the brain
    • fluctuation of 2-3 degrees
  3. what are some factors that can cause a change in a body temperature
    • Hormone levels
    • Physical activity
    • Disease
    • Injury
    • Environment
    • Time of day
    • Age
    • Weight
  4. what is the normal bosy temperature for an adult child and infant
    • adult 97.8-99
    • child 97.8-98.6
    • infant 99-99.7
  5. patient whose body temp rises above normal limits is called what
  6. what is abnormally high fever
  7. a persone with a body temp below normal limit is called what
  8. what are the four areas of the body to measure temperature
    • oral (under tongue)
    • tympanic  (ear)
    • rectum
    • axiallry
  9. what is an aural thermometer
    thermometer that goes into the ear that reads close to the tympanic membrane
  10. never leave a patient with what kind of thermometer in place
    rectum or axillary
  11. when is it not appropriate to take an oral temperatiure
    after a person drinks a hot or cold beverage
  12. what method of temperature testing is noninvasive
    axiallary temperature
  13. pulse is recorded as _____
  14. what are the nine locations to measure a pulse
    • Apical: apex of the heart (heard with a stethoscope)
    • Radial: at the wrist at the base of the thumb
    • Carotid: neck
    • Femoral: groin
    • Popliteal: posterior knee
    • Temporal: front of ear
    • Dorsalis Pedis: top of foot
    • Posterior Tibial: inner side of ankle
    • Brachial: groove of elbow
  15. what are the average pulse rates of an adult child and infant
    Adult: 60 to 90 bpm

    Child: 90 to 100 bpm

    Infant: 120 bpm
  16. what is tachycardia
    abnormal rapid heart rate over 100 bpm
  17. which pulse is most accessible on adults
    what is bradycardia
    • radial pulse
    • abnormally slow heart rate below 60 bpm
  18. when taking a pulse what finger should we not use
    what is the routine regimen for taking radial pulse
    • not use your thumb
    • count pulse for 15 sec and multiply it by 4
  19. when taking an apical pulse of the heart what must be used
  20. what are the avg baseline respiration rates for child infant adult
    Adult: 15 to 20 bpm

    Child (1 to 10 years): 20 to 30 bpm

    Infant (under 1 year): 30 to 60 bpm

    respirations are quiet and effortless
  21. how do we assess respiration
    • The patient is in seated or supine position for assessment of other vital signs.
    • Observe the chest wall for symmetry of movement
    • Observe skin color – cyanosis
    • Count the number of times the patient’s chest rises and falls one full minute.
    • The patient should not be aware that respirations are being counted as they may alter their normal pattern of breathing.
  22. what happens if a patients respiration is fewer than 10 bpm
    • Cyanosis
    • Apprehension
    • Restlessness
    • Change in level of consciousness, (supply of oxygen is inadequate to meet the needs of body)
  23. what is dyspnea
    when a patient is using more than normal effort to breath
  24. what is hyperventilation
    what is a solution
    is when a patient breathes too much oxygen and exhaled too much carbon dioxide, which disturbs the chemical imbalance of the blood

    Persuade them to breathe slower or breathe into a paper bag, which will help return their carbon dioxide level to normal
  25. what position do we place a patient in for respiratory distress
    fowlers position
  26. what is the top and bottom number of blood pressure measures
    • The top number is the systolic pressure and is a measure of the amount of blood flow ejected from the left ventricle of the heart.
    • The bottom number is the diastolic pressure, and indicates the amount of resistance the blood meets due to systemic vascular resistance.
  27. what are other factors that change the blood pressure
    • Age- As a person ages , the blood pressure usually increases as the body systems that control blood pressure deteriorates.
    • Weight
    • Temperature
    • Disease
    • Exercise
    • Stress
  28. what are the normal ranges of blood pressure in the 3
    • Adult
    • Systolic: 110 to 120 mm Hg
    • Diastolic: 60 to 80 mm Hg
    • Adolescent
    • Systolic: 85 to 130 mm Hg
    • Diastolic: 45 to 85 mm Hg
    • Child
    • Systolic: 90 to 120 mm Hg
    • Diastolic: 50 to 70 mm Hg
  29. women have higher blood presure than men
  30. which person generally has higher blood pressure
  31. what is hypertensive or high blood pressure moderate degree of hypertension can cause gradual damage to what organs
    • Systolic blood pressure is consistently over 140 mm Hg
    • Diastolic blood pressure is consistently over 90 mm Hg

    the heart, brain and kidneys
  32. what is hypotensive
    A systolic BP of less than 90 mmHg and diastolic pressure of less than 50 mmHg indicates hypotension (abnormally low blood pressure). Hypotension can occur when a patient is in shock from burns, bleeding, vomiting or heat exhaustion. It is a result of a decrease in total blood volume.
  33. what are the two types of sphygmomanometer
    • Mercury manometer (most accurate)
    • Aneroid manometer
  34. what is a sphygmomanometer
    how should you determine the BP cuff
    • blood pressure cuff
    • on patients size
  35. how should we take bp
    • Equipment needed include a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope placed over the brachial artery pulse in the antecubital space
    • Patient should be sitting upright with arm reclined and supported.
    • Sleeves should be rolled up with no tight clothing around the arm.
    • Room should be quiet to facilitate hearing the pulse.
    • The bladder, bell, and ear pieces should cleansed with alcohol before and after each use.
  36. what is oxygen therapy
    what is hypoxemia
    what is hypoxia
    is to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation while minimizing cardiopulmonary work.

    Hypoxemia: When the level of oxygen in the arterial blood becomes inadequate to meet the patient’s physiological needs

    describes a state of oxygen deficiency at the tissue level.
  37. what monitor is used to measure oxygen saturation in the hemoglobin
    pulse oximetry
  38. is oxygen a drug and can it be given freely to patients
    • yes
    • and must be prescribed by physicians order
  39. what can cause patients with copd to stop breathing
    excessive amounts of oxygen
  40. is oxygen highly combustible
  41. list other breathing systems
    • Transtracheal
    • Mechanical ventilators (respirators)
    • Oxygen tent
    • Home oxygen delivery system
    • Oxygen delivery equipment for the imaging department