Bio 502, Fall 2016, Lecture 19: Skull & cranial vasculature

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Bio 502, Fall 2016, Lecture 19: Skull & cranial vasculature
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2016-11-17 19:59:45
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bones skull blood supply
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bones of skull, blood supply
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  1. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): the skull with the mandible is called the cranium.
    FALSE. The skull without the mandible is called the cranium.
  2. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): most of the organs of special sense are located among the bones of the face.
    TRUE. More to the point, all of them are.
  3. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): there are three synovial joints involving external bones of the skull: the tempromandibular joints and the joint between the dens of axis and the occipital condyles.
    FALSE. there are 4 synovial joints involving external bones of the skull (2 pairs of joints): the tempromandiblar joints and the joints between the superior lateral masses of atlas and the occipital condyles.
  4. What two osteological features (and associated bones) form the lateral wall of the orbit?
    The zygomatic process of the frontal bone and the frontal process of the zygomatic bone.
  5. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): nasion is the union of five bones in the face.
    FALSE. Nasion is the union of three bones: the paired nasal bones and the frontal bone.
  6. What is the name of the communicating region located solely on the maxilla that communicates a part of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve (V2)?
    The inferior orbital foramen
  7. For the following question, select
    a) if 1 is correct
    b) if 1&2 are correct
    c) if 2&3 are correct
    d) if all are correct
    e) if none are correct

    1) the ethmoid bone participates in the formation of the foramen cecum
    2) the falx cerebri attaches to the frontal crest on the frontal crest on the frontal bone, the internal occipital crest on the occipital bone, and the crista gali on the ethmoid bone
    3) the temporalis muscle passes superficial to the zygomatic arch
    4) the infraorbital foramen communicates the infraorbital nerve, a branch of the opthalmic division of trigeminal
    B
  8. For the following question, select
    a) if 1 is correct
    b) if 1&2 are correct
    c) if 2&3 are correct
    d) if all are correct
    e) if none are correct

    1) the inferior sagittal sinus and the straight sinus unite to for the great cerebral vein
    2) the dural venous sinuses are fed by the cerebral veins & the cerebellar veins
    3) all of the sinuses eventually drain into the right atrium of the heart
    4) the confluence of sinuses is drained by the sigmoid sinuses, which continue as the transverse sinuses
    C
  9. Trace back the basilar artery to the brachiocephalic trunk. Indicate "right" or "Left" where necessary.
    Basilar artery / right vertebral artery / right subclavian artery (1st part) / brachiocephalic trunk.
  10. If the right posterior cerebral artery were 100% blocked, describe the alternative arterial paths to supply blood to the brain up to the anterior communicating artery. Trace each path back to the arch of the aorta.
    1st path: arch of the aorta/left common carotid artery/left internal carotid artery/left anterior cerebral artery/anterior communicating artery

    2nd path: arch of the aorta/left subclavian artery/left vertebral artery/basilar artery/left posterior cerebral artery/left posterior communicating artery/left anterior cerebral artery/anterior communicating artery

    3rd path: arch of the aorta/brachiocephalic trunk/right subclavian artery/right vertebral artery/basilar artery/left posterior cerebral artery/left posterior communicating artery/left anterior cerebral artery/anterior communicating artery

    4th path: arch of the aorta/brachiocephalic trunk/right common carotid artery/right internal carotid artery/right anterior cerebral artery/anterior communicating artery...

    ...basically there are lots of ways, which is the great thing about the circle of Willis...
  11. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries serve as additional arterial paths to the arterial circle of Willis.
    FALSE. The posterior inferior cerebellar arteries feed the posterior spinal arteries
  12. True or false (if false explain why):
    The following accurately describes the meningeal layers present at the foramen magnum, traveling superficial to deep:

    periosteal dura mater
    arachnoid mater
    pia mater
    FALSE. the dura mater divides into two layers as the meninges pass into the skull. So going superficial to deep, the meninges are as follows:

    • periosteal dura mater
    • meningeal dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  13. If the internal carotid artery were blocked, would blood flow to the dura mater be affected? If so, which portions? Explain your answer.
    • Yes, blood flow to the dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa would be affected because blood to that region take the following route back to the internal carotid artery:
    • dura in the anterior cranial fossa/anterior meningeal branches/anterior & posterior ethmoidal arteries/opthalmic artery/internal carotid artery.
  14. If all special afferent fibers of the maxillary division of trigeminal (CN V2) were disrupted, the nerve supply to which portion, if any, of the dura mater would be affected
    • There are a few things wrong here:
    • 1) special afferent fibers don't target the dura
    • 2) maxillary doesn't carry special afferent fibers
    • 3) special afferent fibers target the organs of vision, balance, taste, and sight and hearing
  15. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    the fibers of the falx cerebelli do not blend into the fibers of the tentorium cerebelli, however those of falx cerebri do.
    FALSE. The fibers of both the falx cerebelli and the falx cerebri blend into the fibers of the tentorium cerebelli. They all blend together and live happily ever after.
  16. Order the meningeal layers as they would be encountered running from superficial-to-deep at a spot ~ 3 cm lateral to the sagittal suture.
    • periosteal layer of dura mater
    • meningeal layer of dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  17. Describe the path of the internal carotid artery beginning at the point where it enters the skull.
    • 1) ICA enters the skull through the external opening of the carotid canal, located on the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
    • 2) It travels anteriorly and medially through the short carotid canal, exiting the canal through the internal opening of the carotid canal, located anterior to the petrous portion and posterior to the greater win of te sphenoid bone, close to the foramen lacerum.
    • 3) continues traveling anteriorly along the body of the sphenoid (this is ~ where we left it)
    • 4) travels further along the sphenoid, terminating by dividing into middle and anterior cerebral arteries
  18. Which bone of the skull articulates with the spine and where specifically does this articulation occur?
    The occipital condyles of the occipital bone articulate with the superior surfaces of the lateral masses of atlas (C1).
  19. Match the following structures with the structures with which they travel through  communicating regions of the skull:
    A) infraorbital artery
    B) nerve to lateral pterygoid
    C) CN III
    D) V1
    E) a branch of maxillary nerve
    F) Temporal branch of facial
    G) auriculotemporal nerve
    H) cervical branch of facial
    • A&E
    • B&G
    • C&D
    • F&H
  20. Trace blood drainage from the inferior sagittal sinus to the right atrium on the right side of the body.
    inferior sagittal sinus/straight sinus/confluence of sinuses/right transverse sinus/right  sigmoid sinus/right internal jugular vein/right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava/right atrium

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