bio 227 chap 16

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bio 227 chap 16
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2013-11-18 14:02:56
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bio 227 chap 16
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  1. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ____.
    cortisol
  2. Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the _____.
    thymus gland
  3. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular _____.
    second messengers
  4. Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
    enzyme
  5. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ____.
    hormones
  6. The hypothalalmic-hypophyseal tract ___.
    is partly contained within the infundibulum
  7. Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?
    polycythemia
  8. which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?
    type of hormone
  9. Oxytocin ___.
    release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
  10. ADH ___.
    is inhibited by alcohol
  11. Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?
    feedback
  12. Which of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus?
    stimulates production of an action potential
  13. Which of the following hormones suppresses appetite and increase energy expenditure?
    leptin
  14. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
    direct control of the nervous system
  15. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ____.
    the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
  16. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the  ____.
    hypophyseal portal system
  17. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because _____.
    it is only a hormone storage are that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
  18. Steroid hormones exert their action by ____.
    entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
  19. The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ____.
    binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
  20. Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ___.
    during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many others enzymes
  21. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ___.
    G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
  22. Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ___.
    steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
  23. When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight or flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ____.
    epinephrine
  24. One of the leas complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ion and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
    humoral stimulation
  25. The major targets of growth hormone are ___.
    bones and skeletal muscles
  26. Which of the following is not a parathyroid gland mechanism to maintain adequate levels of blood calcium?
    inhibition of calcitonin synthesis
  27. which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
    the heart
  28. Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to _____.
    cortisol
  29. Leptin is secreted by ___.
    adipocytes
  30. The most important mineralcorticoid regulator of electrocyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ____.
    aldosterone
  31. Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?
    epinephrine
  32. The single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood is ___.
    parathyroid hormone
  33. Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger system include ___.
    possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
  34. Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus  ____.
    first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
  35. ACTH ____.
    secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic regulatory hormone.
  36. Aldosterone _____.
    functions to increase sodium reabsorption
  37. Which organ does not produce hormones?
    spleen
  38. In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ____.
    up-regulation
  39. Eicosanoids do not include _____.
    hydrocortisones
  40. A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.
    FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
  41. Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
    It does not require a second messenger to effect a response
  42. How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress/
    by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
  43. What ion is sometimes used as a second-messenger of amino acid-based hormones?
    calcium

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