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What is Geography?
- The study of
- Physical features of the earth
- Human Activity
What is Reginal Geography?
- Looks at places and what makes them unigue
- i.e descriptive
What is Systematic Geography?
- is concerned with discovering understanding and modeling processes that differentiate the Earth's surface into places
- i.e. looks at common principles and phenomena
What is Human Geography?
How human activities and behaviour shape places
What is Physical Geography?
- How natural processes shape the earth and its landscape
- Sets stage for human activities and the nature of the biosphere
What is Climatology?
- Heat and moisture processes associated with the land surface
- Weather vs. Climate
What is Geomorphology?
The study of landform-making processes
What is Hydrology?
The study of movement, distribution and quality of water throughout the Earth
What is Coastal and Marine Geography?
Examine coastal processes, marine resources and their human interface
What is Geography of Soils?
- Distribution of soil types and properties
- The processes of soil formation (geomorphology, climatology and biogeography)
What is Biogeography?
Examines the distrabution of organisms and the processes that produce these distrabution patterns
What is Cartography?
The science and art of map making
What is Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Computer based systems that can store and manipulate spatial data
What is Remote Sensing?
Aerial photographs and satelite images obtained remotely from the earth's surface
What is Mathematical Models and Statistics
To produce analyse and prodictions
What are the 4 Spheres?
Gaseous layer surrounding the Earth
Outermost solid layer of the Earth
- The Earth's water
- oceans, rivers, ice and water vapour
All living organisms
- supports the majority of life on earth
- includes land surface and upper ~100 meters of the ocean
- Four spheres are interdependent
- operate at various spatial and temporal scales
- are typically defined as a cascade of a continuum
What are the 5 scales
- Earth Sun relationship
- need to take a vantage point from space, considering the global energy balance as a whole
- Unequal Solar heating, drives currents of air and water
- currents are knownas the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation systems
- can distinguish continents and oceans, enabling us to track winds and ocean currents
- Obseve phenomena such as cloud patterns of weather systems or broad scale land cover types (The prairies)
- Relationshop between weather systems and solar control of surface temperature form the basis for the climate of the world
- Factors are important in determining the exact patterns of vegetation and soils
- Treed vegetation along rivers and standing water, cultivated lands, ect.
- Study specific soil types or biological communites
- are formed by unique proporties of natural processes
- lowlands willow cover need very moist conditions, where as spruce forests require slightly drier conditions available at higher elevations
- Mountain ranges formnover millions of years of tectonic activity
- Earthquake can result in
- significant surface changes over a matter of minutes
- It is important to note that natural processes occur over various space and time scales
- Climate change over large scales whereas weather systems (such as a hurricane) operate on smaller scales
Set of related or organized objects
energy and/or matter flows in and between the 4 spheres
a mechanism by which matter or energy flows from one part of the system to another