Chapter 11

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Chapter 11
2013-11-18 15:01:41
Nervous System

Nervous System
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  1. Where is the brain and spinal cord located?
    Central Nervous System
  2. Where is the integration and command system
    'Central Nervous System
  3. Where are the paired spinal and cranial nerves?
    Peripheral Nervous System
  4. This carries meassages to and from the spinal cord and brain.
    Peripheral Nervous System
  5. This is the master controlling and communicating system of the body.
    Nervous system
  6. Funtions of the nervous system
    • Sensory input
    • Intergration
    • motor output
  7. What are the 2 functional divisions of the peripheral Nervous System?
    • Sensory (afferent) division
    • Motor (efferent) division
  8. Carries impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain.
    Sensory afferent fibers
  9. This transmits impulses from visceral organs to the brain
    Visceral afferent fibers
  10. Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs.
    Motor (efferent) division
  11. What are the 2 main parts of the Motor Division?
    • Somatic nervous system
    • Autonomic Nervous system
  12. Conscious control of skeletal muscles
    Sonatic nervous system
  13. This regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.
    Autonomic nervous system
  14. Divisions of Autonomic nervous system
    symphathetic and parasympathetic
  15. Excitable cells that transmit electrical signals
  16. cells that surround and wrap neurons are what?
    Supporting cells
  17. What supports and braces neurons?
  18. What anchors neurons to their nutrient supplies?
  19. What guides migration of young neurons?
  20. What controls the chemical environment?
  21. What is a small, ovoid cell with spiny processes?
  22. These cells range in shape from squamous to columnar.
    Ependymal Cells
  23. These cells line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column.
    Ependymal Cells
  24. What are branched cells that wrap CNS nerve fibers?
  25. What contains the nucleus and a nucleolus
    Nerve Cell body (Perikaryon or Soma)
  26. What is the major biosynthetic center?
    Nerve cell body (Perikaryon or Soma)
  27. What is the focal point for the outgrowth of neuronal processes
    Nerve cell body
  28. Has no centrioles
    Nerve cell Body
  29. Has well developed Nissi bodies
    Nerve cell body
  30. What Contains a axon hillock
    Nerve cell body
  31. Contains the nucleus and a nucleolus
    Is the major biosynthetic center
    Is the focal point for the outgrowth of neuronal processes
    Has no centrioles
    Has well developed Nissi bodies
    Contains an axon hillock
    Nerve cell Body
  32. What surrounds fibers in the PNS?
    Schwann Cells
  33. What surrounds neurons cell bodies with ganglia
    Satellite Cells
  34. What are the 2 types of processes?
    Axons and Dendrites
  35. What is the processes in the CNS called?
  36. What is the processes in the PNS called?
  37. What is the armlike extensions from the soma called?
  38. What is the receptive, or input, regions of a neuron?
  39. What is the slender processes of the uniform diameter arising from the hillock?
  40. What generates and transmits action potentials?
  41. What secretes neurotransmitters from the axonial terminals?
  42. Has rare branches
  43. Whitish, fatty, segmented sheath around most long axons.
    Myelin Sheath
  44. What has the function to

    Protect the axon
    Electrically insulate fibers from one another
    Increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission
    Myelin Sheath
  45. What is gaps in the myelin sheath between adjacent Schwann cells?
    Nodes of Ranvier
  46. What has mostly soma and unmyelinated fibers?
    Gray Matter
  47. What has dense collections of myelinated fibers?
    White matter
  48. What type of neuron has 3 or more processes?
  49. What type of neuron has two processes (axon and dendrite)?
  50. What type of neuron has a single, short process?
  51. What are the 3 events that changes Membrane Potential?
    • Depolarization
    • Repolarization
    • Hyperpolarization
  52. What is it called when the inside of a membrane becomes less negative?
  53. What is it called when a membrane returns to its resting membrane potential?
  54. What is it called when the inside of the membrane becomes more negative than the resting potential?
  55. What is a junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to another or to an effector cell?
  56. What neuron conducts impulses toward the synapse?
    Presynaptic neuron
  57. What neuron transmits impulses away from the synapse?
    Postsynaptic neuron
  58. What is a fluid filled space separating the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons?
    Synaptic Cleft
  59. Neurotransmitter bound to a postsynaptic neuron:
    • Produces a continuous postsynaptic effect
    • Blocks reception of additional messages
    • Must be removed from its receptors
  60. Removal of neurotransmitters occur when they:
    • Are degraded by enzymes
    • Are reabsorbed by astrocytes or the presynaptic terminals
    • Diffuse from synaptic cleft
  61. Acetylcholine causes what?
    Muscle Contraction