male uretha is how long? and how long is female urethra?
male is longer: 5 1/2 to 4 1/4 inches, and the female is 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches.
child toilet training
children get voluntary control of their urethral sphincters at between 18 to 24 mons of age, and toliet training beings at 2 to 3 yrs. It should not being until the child is able to: hold urine for 2 hrs, recognize the feeling of bladder fullness, and communicate the need to void and control urination until seated on the toliet.
Physiologic changes that accompany norm aging may affect urination in older adults, and these changes include the following:
- diminished ability of the kidneys to [ ] urine may result in nocturia.
- decr bladder muscle tone may redr the capacity of the bladder to hold urine, resulting in incr freq of urination.
- decr bladder contractility may lead to urine retention and statis, which incr the likelihood of UTI.
- Neuromuscular probs, degenerative joint probs, alts in thought processes, and weakness may interfere w/voluntary control and the ability to reach a toliet in time.
meds prescribed may interfere with bladder fx, like diuretics incring urine production, which reslt in incr need to void and possible urge incontinence. Sedatives and tranquilizers may diminish the awareness of the need to void.
food and fluid intake
caffeine-containing bevs, foods in high water content. foods and bevs in high na content. and foods that affect the odor and color of urine.
they have numerous effects. some are nephrotoxic, like analgesics that are abused. diuretics. cholinergics stimulate contraction of the detrusor muscles and produce urination. some analgesics and tranquilizers suppress the CNS, interferring with urination by diminisheing the effectiveness of the neural reflex.
certain drugs that effect the color of urine:
- anticoagulants may cuase hematuria, leading to a pink or red color
- diuretics can lighten the color of urine to pale yellow
- Phenazopyridine (Pyridium), a urinary tract analgestic, can cause orange or orange-red urine
- Elavil or B-complex vits can turn urine green or blue-green
- Levodopa (L-dopa), an antiparkison drug, and injectable iron compounds can lead to brown/black urine.
characteristic color of urine
a freshly voided specimen is pale yellow, straw colored, or amber, depending on its [ ].
urine is darker than norm when it's scanty and ed. urine is lighter than norm when it is excessive and diluted. certain drugs, such as cascara, l-dopa, and sulfornadmides, alter the color of urine. Some foods can alter the color; for ex, beets can cause urine to appear red.
characteristic odor of urine
normal finding: should smell aromatic. as urine stands, it often develops an ammonia odor because of bact action
special considerations: some foods cause urine to have a characteristic odor, like asparagus and onions. Urine high in glucose content has a sweet odor, and urine that is heavily infected has a fetid odor.
characteristic turbidity of urine
normal finding: fresh urine should be clear/translucent, as urine stands and cools it becomes cloudy
special considerations: cloudiness observed in freshly voided urine is abnormal and may be due to the presence of RBCs, WBCs, bact, vaginal discharge, sperm, or prostatic fluid.
characteristic pH of urine
norm finding: is norm 6.0, with a range of 4.6 to 8. turns alkaline when standing due to carbon dioxide diffused into the air.
special considerations: a high protein diet can cause it to be excessively acidic. certain foods can cause it to be alkaline, like citrus fruits, dairy products, and vegetables, esp legumes. Certain meds cause acidity/cause it to be alkaline
characteristic specific urine gravity
norm finding: norm range is 1.015 to 1.025
special considerations: [ ] urine will have higher than norm specific gravity and diluted urine will have lower than norm specific gravity. in the absence of kidney dz, a high specific gravity usually indicated dehydration, while a lower specific gravity indicates overhydration
characteristic constitutes of urine
norm findings: organic constitutes are urea, uric acid, creatitine, hippuric acid, indican, urene pigments, and undetermined nitrogen. inorganic constitutes are ammonia, na, chloride, traces of iron, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, and calcium.
special considerations: abnormal findings are blood, pus, albumin, glucose, ketone bodies, casts, gross bact, and bile
A surgical creation of an
alternative route for the excretion of urine.
Urinary diversion, ileal loop/ conduit
Blood that is “hidden” in the stool
The process of emptying the bladder
A measure of the density of urine
compared with the density of water.
The avg adult excretes how much urine per day?
An ileostomy produces what consistency of fecal content?
You are caring for a client who has a foley cath. To accurately assess urine color?
Look at color in drainage tube- most recent urine
What is nocturia? What are some causes of nocturia?
Excessive voiding during the noc, diuretics, BPH, prostate issues, dropped bladder, meds
What is anuria? What are some causes of anuria?
No urine, dehydration, CRI, RF
Patients experiencing stress incontinence may be instructed to perform these exercises