Medical Terminology Ch. 7, 8, 9, 10.txt

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Medical Terminology Ch. 7, 8, 9, 10.txt
2013-11-19 11:54:11
AHS 200 3rd midterm

3rd midterm
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  1. Lymphatic System
    structures involved in the conveyance of the fluid lymph
  2. Tricuspid Valve
    • on the right side
    • valve between the atria and ventricles
  3. Bicuspid valve
    • also known as the mitral valve, on the left side
    • valve between the atria and ventricles
  4. 4 chambers of the heart
    • right atrium
    • left atrium
    • right ventricle
    • left ventricle
  5. pericardium
    • sac made of a double membrane that encloses the heart, outer membrane
  6. endocardium
    • innermost membrane that forms the lining of the heart
  7. myocardium
    • heart muscle , thickest tissue of the heart
  8. coronary
    "encircling", refers to the way coronary arteries encircle the heart in a crownlike fashion
  9. angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o
  10. aort/o
  11. arter/o, arteri/o
  12. arteriol/o
  13. ather/o
    yellow fatty plaque
  14. phleb/o, ven/o
  15. venul/o
    venule, smaller vein
  16. cardiomyopathy
    disease of the heart muscle
  17. electrocardiogram
    a treadmill stress test measuring the function of the heart
  18. echocardiography (echo)
    use of ultrasonography to diagnose heart disease
  19. echocardiogram
    recording of the heart from ultrasonic waves through the chest wall
  20. cardiac catheterization
    insertion of a long flexible tube into the heart chambers through a vein in an arm, leg or neck
  21. angina pectoris
    severe chest pain caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart
  22. arrhythmia/dysrhythmia
    loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
  23. cardiomegaly
    enlarged size of the heart
  24. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    condition of weakness, breathlessness and swelling of lower parts of the body
  25. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    abnormal condition of the heart's arteries
  26. what is fibrillation
    muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
  27. defibrillator
    electronic apparatus that delivers a shock
  28. hyperlipidemia
    excessive lipids (fats) in the blood
  29. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  30. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  31. infarction
    necrosis of a local tissue caused by a lack of blood supply to the area
  32. myocardial infarction (MI)
    death of an area of the heart muscle due to lack of oxygen
  33. myocardial ischemia
    • temporary loss of blood supply to the myocardium
  34. vasodilation
    dilation  of the blood vessel
  35. vasoconstriction
    constriction of the blood vessel
  36. angiomas
    tumors consisting of blood vessels, usually benign
  37. arteriography
    radiography of arteries after injection of radiopaque material into the bloodstream
  38. arteriogram
    image produced from an arteriography
  39. hemorrhagic stroke
    bursting of blood vessels in brain tissue
  40. thrombotic stroke
    Clot that blocks blood flow to the brain
  41. embolic stroke
    A blood clot caused by blockage or hemorrage
  42. cardiopulmonary bypass
    procedure used to temporarily divert blood from the heart and lungs during  heart and lung surgery
  43. thrombolytic agent
    a substance administered through a catheter to dissolve clots
  44. heparin
    oral anticoagulant, aka warfarin
  45. diuretics
    antihypertensive agent used to reduce the blood volume through greater excretion of water by the kidneys
  46. angioplasty
    surgical repair of blood vessles
  47. lymphoma
    cancer that originates in the lymphatic system
  48. lymphadema
    accumulation of lymph tissue resulting in swelling
  49. splenectomy
    removal of a ruptured spleen
  50. tonsilectomy
    excision of the tonsils
  51. inspiration, inhalation
    air into the lungs
  52. expiration, exhaling
    air out of the lungs
  53. pulmonologist
    physician who specializes in the lungs
  54. diaphragm
    muscular wall that separates the abdomen
  55. phrenic
    pertaining to the diaphragm
  56. pleura
    membrane surrounding the lungs and chest cavity
  57. pleural cavity
    space between the pleura covering the lungs and the pleura lining the thoracic cavity
  58. alveol/o
    alveolus, (pl. alveoli)
  59. bronch/o, bronchi/o
    bronchus (pl. bronchi)
  60. bronchiol/o
  61. epiglott/o
  62. laryng/o
    larynx (voice box)
  63. lob/o
  64. nas/o, rhin/o
  65. phren/o
  66. pleur/o
  67. pharyng/o
    pharynx (throat)
  68. trache/o
  69. eu-
  70. -pnea
  71. brady-
  72. tachy-
  73. dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  74. apnea
    temporary lack of breathing
  75. orthopnea
    a condition in which breathing is uncomfortable in any position except sitting erect or standing
  76. hyperventilation
    increased aeration of the lungs which reduces carbon dioxide levels
  77. spirometry
    • measurement of the amount of air taken into and expelled from the lungs
  78. hypoxia, anoxia
    deficiency of oxygen
  79. bronchoscopy
    visual examination of the tracheobronchial tree using a bronchoscope
  80. pneumothorax
    • a collection of air or gas in the chest or pleural space that causes part or all of a lung to collapse.
  81. hemothorax
    • blood in the pleural cavity
  82. ARDS
    Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia
  83. asthma
    sudden attacks of dyspnea caused by spasms of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membranes
  84. wheeze
    whistling sound made during respiration
  85. atelectasis
    • collapsed lung
  86. bronchiectasis
    dilation of a bronchus
  87. bronchography
    radiography of the bronchi after injection of a radiopaque substance
  88. carcinoma of the lung
    lung cancer
  89. emphysema
    chronic pulmonary disease caused by an increase in the size of alveoli
  90. influenza
    acute, contagious, respiratory infection caused by different types of viruses
  91. nasal polyps
    • protruding tissue growth from the nasal mucosa
  92. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disease that decreases the lungs' ability to perform their ventilatory function
  93. pleuritis
    inflammation of the pleura
  94. pulmonary embolism
    blockage of a pulmonary artery by a foreign matter such as fat, air, tumor tissue, or blood clot
  95. SIDS
    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, sudden, unexpected death of an apparently normal and healthy infant that occurs during sleep
  96. TB
    tuberculosis, infectious disease caused by a bacteria (M. tuberculosis), chronic in nature and usually affects the lungs
  97. Asphyxiation
  98. tracheostomy
    opening in windpipe
  99. tracheotomy
    incision of trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck overlying the trachea
  100. Endotracheal intubation
    insertion of an airway tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea
  101. Nasotracheal / Orotracheal intubation
    referring to the insertion of tube into the the trachea through the nose or mouth, respectively
  102. -stomy
  103. -tomy
  104. Nasal cannula
    delivers oxygen by way of two small tubes inserted into the nostrils and use for long-term oxygen maintenance
  105. Transtracheal oxygen
    efficient long term method of delivering oxygen as alternative to nasal cannula
  106. lung biopsy
    removal of lung tissue for the purpose of diagnosis
  107. Percutaneous biopsy
    obtained by puncturing the suspected lesion through the skin
  108. pneumonectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of a lung
  109. lobectomy
    surgical removal of a lobe of a lung
  110. thoracocentesis / thoracentesis
    surgical puncture of the chest cavity to remove fluid
  111. R
  112. RDS
    Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  113. SOB
    shortness of breath
  114. URI
    Upper Respiratory Infection
  115. hemoptysis
    coughing up blood
  116. mediastinum
    • space between the lungs where the heart and other structures are found
  117. rale
    abnormal chest sounds usually heard on inspiration due to air or fluid
  118. rhonchi
    abnormal chest sounds usually heard on expiration due to air or fluid
  119. digestion
    mechanical and chemical conversion of food into substances that will be absorbed by cells
  120. absorption
    process through which digested food particles pass through lining of small intestine into blood or lymph capillaries
  121. defecation
    elimination of waste through the anus in the form of feces
  122. -ose
  123. -ase
  124. -ation
    action or proces
  125. bil/i, chol/e
  126. cirrh/o
  127. de-
    down, from, reversing, removing
  128. -orexia
  129. -pepsia
  130. vag/o
    vagus nerve
  131. viscer/o
    viscera-soft internal organs of the body
  132. alimentary tract
    digestive tract
  133. gastrointestinal
    referring to the stomach and the intestines
  134. cheil/o
  135. gloss/o, lingu/o
  136. or/o, stomat/o
    mouth; opening, "mouth-like" structures
  137. duoden/o
    duodenum, 1st division of the small intestine
  138. jejun/o
    jejunum, 2nd division of the small intestine
  139. ile/o
    ileum, 3rd division of the small intestine
  140. col/p, colon/o
    colon or large intestine
  141. cec/o
    • cecum
  142. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  143. proct/o
    anus or rectum
  144. cholecyst/o
  145. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  146. bile
    produced by the liver, breaks down fats before absorption by small intestine
  147. biliary
    pertaining to bile
  148. insulin
    hormone that regulates blood sugar level secreted by pancreas
  149. biliary tract
    pathway for bile flow from the liver to the bile duct and into the duodenum
  150. gallstone
    biliary calculus, stone formed in the biliary tract
  151. jaundice
    yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and white outer part of the eyeballs
  152. choledocholithiasis
    • stones in the common bile duct
  153. pancreatolithiasis
    condition of stones in the pancreas
  154. sialography
    examining salivary ducts by injecting radiopaque substances into the ducts
  155. colonoscopy
    endoscopic examination of the lining of the colon with a colonoscope
  156. sigmoidoscopy
    inspection of the rectum and sigmoid colon
  157. DM
    Diabetes Mellitus, a disease in which there is a resistance to insulin or lack of insulin secretion  by the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas
  158. hyperglycemia
    increased level of glucose in the blood
  159. polyphagia
    excessive hunger and uncontrolled eating; symptom of DM
  160. polyuria
    excessive urination; symptom of DM
  161. polydipsia
    excessive thirst' symptom of DM
  162. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    carbohydrate intolerance caused by a deficiency of insulin first recognized during pregnancy, disappears after the delivery of the infant
  163. hyperemesis
    excessive vomiting
  164. anorexia
    loss of appetite for food
  165. Bulimia
    episodes of binge eating that often terminate in self-induced vomiting
  166. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  167. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  168. gastrocele
    herniation of the stomach
  169. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and the intestinal tract
  170. appendicitis
    inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  171. colitis
    inflammation of the colon
  172. diverticulitis
    inflammation of small sacs in the diverticulum-colon, causing constipation
  173. hemorrhoids
    masses of veins in the anal canal that are unnaturally distended and lie just inside or outside the rectum
  174. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gall bladder
  175. cholelithiasis
    formulation or presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
  176. cirrhosis
    chronic liver disease marked by degeneration of liver cells causing yellow skin
  177. hapatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  178. hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  179. diabetes
    general term for diseases characterized by excessive urination, ; usually refers to diabetes mellitus
  180. hypolycemia
    condition in which the blood glucose level is abnormally low; may be caused by excessive production of insulin by the pancreas
  181. gastric bypass
    surgery to reduce the stomach's capacity, used to treat extreme obesity
  182. laproscopic cholecystectomy
    cutting of gallbladder with a laser and removed through a small incision in the abdominal wall
  183. appendectomy
    removal of the vermiform appendix
  184. colostomy
    creation of an artificial anus on the abdominal wall by incising the colon and drawing it out to the surface, performed when the feces cannot pass through the colon and out through the anus
  185. anastomosis
    • joining of two vessels or ducts that are normally separate
  186. hemorrhoidectomy
    removal of hemorrhoids
  187. laproscopy
    examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall; done for inspection of abdominal organs, particularly the ovaries, uterine tubes and for laparoscopic surgery
  188. liver biopsy
    removal of  liver tissue for pathologic examination
  189. percutaneous liver biopsy
    removal of liver tissue by using a needle to puncture the skin overlying the liver
  190. urology
    the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tracts of both genders, specialist is urologist
  191. albumin/o
    albumin-protein made by the liver
  192. -ation
  193. -esis
    action, process, or result of
  194. olig/o
    few, scanty
  195. ur/o
    urine or urinary tract
  196. -uria
    pertaining to urine or urination
  197. cyst/o
    bladder (sometimes cyst or sac)
  198. nephr/o, ren/o
  199. pyel/o
    • renal pelvis (reservoir in the kidney that collects urine)
  200. ureter/o
  201. renal artery
    brings blood to kidney
  202. renal vein
    take blood away from kidney
  203. glomerular filtration
    filtering of the blood; initial process in the formation of urine; Glomerulus allows water, salts and wastes except blood and proteins to pass through its thin walls
  204. tubular reabsorption
    reabsorption of some substances; Bowman's capsule collects substances that filter through glomerulus and pass them through tubules, reabsorbing most of the water and sugar into blood vessels to re-use and the remaining substances turn it into urine
  205. Tubular secretion
    secretion of substances from the bloodstream into the renal tubule that become urine
  206. UA, U/A
    Urinalysis, a complete urinalysis includes physical, chemical and microscopic examinations performed in the clinical laboratory
  207. UTI
    urinary tract infection; presence of many bacteria in the urine
  208. renal angiography
    radiographic study to assess the arterial blood supply to the kidneys
  209. stenosis
    • constriction or narrowing of an artery
  210. nephrosis
    degenerative changes to the kidneys
  211. polycystic kidney disease
    hereditary disorder of hundreds of fluid-filled cysts throughout both kidneys
  212. polyp
    tumor found on a mucosal surface
  213. renal cell carcinoma
    kidney cancer
  214. urinary incontinence
    inability to hold urine in the bladder
  215. urethral catheterization
    an indwelling catheter (held securely in place with a balloon tip filled with water) left in place for a longer period for urinary diversion
  216. percutaneous nephostomy
    tube inserted temporarily into the renal pelvis when complete obstruction of the ureter is present through an opening in the overlaying skin into the renal pelvis
  217. diuretic
    an agent that causes increased urination
  218. nephrectomy
    surgical removal of a kidney
  219. lithotripsy
    crushing of a stone or calculi using high energy shock waves or a laser
  220. nephropexy
    surgical attachment of a prolapsed (sagging) kidney
  221. ureteroplasty
    surgical repair of a ureter
  222. BE
    Barium Enema (x-ray test)
  223. BM
    bowel movement
  224. GI / UGI
    gastrointestinal / upper gastrointestinal
  225. IBD / IBS
    inflammatory bowel distress / syndrome
  226. NG tube
    nasogastric tube
  227. N & V
    nausea and vomiting
  228. PP, pp
    after meals
  229. US
  230. GRD
    Gastrointestinal Reflux Disease
  231. ARF
    Acute Renal Failure
  232. BPH
    Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  233. BUN
    blood, urea, nitrogen (lab test)
  234. CRF
    chronic renal failure
  235. cysto
    cystoscopic examination
  236. IVP
    intravenous pyelogram (lab test)