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touch, temperature, proprioception (body position), and nociception (pain).
What are the common somatic sensations?
fine touch, proprioception (body position), kinesthesia (awareness of body position), vibration
On the spinal cord, what is associated with the dorsal column system?
pain & temperature
On the spinal cord, what is associated with the spinothalmic system?
fine motor control
On the spinal cord, what is associated with the pyramidal or corticospinal system?
What region on brain gives us sense of body?
- corticospinal (aka pyramidal) - fine motor control
- dorsal column - fine touch, vibration, kinesthesia
- spinthalamic - pain & temperature
it's receptors are linked to unconscious reflexes (no cortex)
What are viseral sensations?
occurs when sensory receptors change their sensitivity to the stimulus. This phenomenon occurs in all senses, with the possible exception of the sense of pain.
What is sensory adaptation?
harder: more output/results
softer: less output/results
constant: less output/results
- In adaptation, when you push on the nerve ending, you get action potentials.... describe what happens when you push
- what is the fluid in the posterior CHAMBER of the eyeball?
Vitreous humor --> posterior cavity
Aqueous humor --> anterior cavity
*CAUTION. Anterior Cavity is further divided into two sections called CHAMBERS
What are the two types of liquid found in eyeball? Where is each located?
Distant vision= lens is flattened
Close vision= lens bluges
How does the lens accommodates for distant vision? How does lens accommodates for close vision?
accommodation is the eye adjusts to near vision. the lens will curve/bulge more
- what is accommodation? and what happens to the lens?
rods and cones
retinal layers consists of?
Low light vision
Rod=low light vision, dim vision
They are active in the dark, light turns them off, signals on optic nerve
Rods are used for what type of vision?
color and acuity
Cone= color and acuity
Needs light, outnubmered by rods (18 rods to 1 cone)
Cones are used for what type of vision?
is the retina uniform?
(AKA the optic nerve head) is the location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve. There are no light sensitive rods or cones to respond to a light stimulus at this point. This causes a break in the visual field called "the blind spot"
what is the optic disc?
It is an oval-shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina. Has MORE CONEs than rods.
Near its center is the fovea- it contains the largest concentration of cone cells in the eye and is responsible for central, high resolution vision. NO RODS IN FOVEA
What is the macula of the eye? What is in it's center?
- Visual pathway:
- eyes--optic nerve--optic chiasma--optic tracs (both sides)--superior colliculus--part of thalamus (lateral geniculate body of thalamus) --occipital lobe
OPTIC NERVE, II
(all other eye nerves are motor)
name the nerve that sense/play a part with vision
tympanic membrane! It vibrates, it gives us the sounds.
what is another name of the ear drum? What is it primarily responsible for?
to Outer most..
What are the bones in the middle ear?
COCHLEA & VESTIBULE
What are the two main parts of the internal ear (inner ear)?
Scala Vestibula & Scala Tempani, sandwhiched inbetween is Cochlear Duct
Scalas Vestibula and Tempani=perilymph
What are the three sections of the cochlea?
Hair cells are located in the Organ of Corti ON THE BASILAR MEMBRANE
stimulated hair cell releases neurotransmitter leading to signal on cochlear nerve
What is the tube that connects the middle ear to the throat?
ear drum vibrates, passes along to stapes, then through oval window, fluid vibrates, basilar membrane and hairs start vibrating
passes on to vestibularcochlear Nerve--> thru medulla, midbrain--> inferior colliculus-->thalamus-->temporal lobe
helps with balance. the utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals
what does the vestibule do? What are the three main parts/components?
Utricle and Saccule.
when no change in acceleration hair "normalizes" and you don't sense speed/movement anymore
What detects head movement? [head movement= forward/back, side to side, up/down, awareness of gravity]
What detects head rotation? (yes and no movement)
VII - facial
IX - glosspharnygeal
X - vagus
What nerves play a part in taste sensation?
Body--> post central gyrus
- What lobes/parts of the brain do each of the following connect/corresponds to??
More K+(potassium) = Endolymph
More Na+ (sodium) = Perilymph
Which fluid has more K+? Which one has more Na+?