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what are the bundle of fibers ging to the brain called?
afferent or sensory tracts
what are the bundle of fibers coming from the brain?
efferent or motor tracts
By what vertebrae does the spinal cord end?
at the level of L1 or L2
IN what 2 regions is the spinal cord enlarged?
why are the cervial and lumbar regions of spine enlarged?
those are the area that innervate the upper and lower limbs
what does the cervical enlargement form?
what does the lumbar enlargement form?
what is the conus medullaris?
pointed cone-shaped end of the spinal cord at L1-2
what is the cauda equina?
collection of dorsal and ventral nerve roots at the inferior end of the spinal cord filling in the vertebral canal
What are the 3 layers of connective tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord called?
2 characteristics of dura mater
-outer most layer of meninges
-very thick and tough
What is the name of the space that lies between the vertebrae and the dura mater?
What forms the lumbar cistern?
what does the lumbar cistern contain?
2 characteristics of Arachnoid mater
-delicate membrane with numerous fine branching fibers that gives a spider web appearance
what does the subarachnoid space contain?
where is the subarachnoid located between?
-arachnoid and the Pia mater
2 characteristics of Pia Mater
-inner most layer
what are denticulate ligaments?
extensions of the Pia that attach the spinal cord to the arachnoid and dura
do the denticulate ligaments run the length of the spinal cord?
what do the filum terminale do?
holds the spinal cord to the sacrum
description of filum terminale
-thin, threadlike extension of the pia mater
what is a lumbar puncture or spinal tap used for?
to obtain CSF from the lumbar cistern
what is the spinal tap an important diagnositc tool for?
variety of nervous system disorders
what two locations does the needle pass in a spinal tap?
-L3 and L4 or L4 and L5
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there on the spine?
how many cervical spinal nerves are there?
how many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
how many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
how mnay sacral spinal nerves are there?
how many coccygeal spinal nerves are there?
Do mixed spinal nerves contain both efferent and afferent?
how are mixed spinal nerves formed?
joining of 2 roots
*ventral and dorsal
what does the dorsal root ganglion contain?
cell bodies of neurons bringing information into spinal cord
how do the dorsal and ventral rami arise form?
the splitting of the spinal enrve
where does the ventral ramus go to? (2)
-anterior and lateral trunk
Where does the dorsal ramus go to?
where does the meningeal branch extend to?
what does the rami communicantes communicata wth?
autonomic nervous system
what are dermatomes?
area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branch of a single spinal nerve
spinal cord anatomy