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What is exercise?
any movement or activity
What is training?
- a long-term process of repeated bouts of exercise that improves fitness
What is an exercise response?
a short- term adaptation that increases heart rate and temperature
What is a training response?
a long-term adaptation that increases the number of capillaries around muscle fibers
What are the four purposes of a training program?
- increase exercise capacity
- increase time to onset of fatigue
- improve overall performance
- decrease risk of injury
What systems are involved in exercise?
What occurs in the body systems when a horse performs exercise?
- oxygen uptake
- transferred to blood
- transferred to muscles
- expelled as CO2
What is the cellular energy source?
Why do muscles need ATP?
for contraction and relaxation (fuel the muscle)
How can metabolism regenerate ATP?
ADP + Pi (phosphate)
What is needed to regenerate ATP?
What are the 3 sources of fuel to make ATP?
- phosphate stores (cell)
- carbohydrate stores (glycogen)
- fat stores (fat tissue)
Can all 3 sources of fuel be used to make ATP at the same time?
yes but different types of work favor different types of fuel
How are muscle fibers classified?
various types of work
What color are Type I fibers?
Are Type I fibers aerobic or anaerobic?
What does the color of muscle fibers show?
amount of mitochondria
Describe Type I fibers.
- slow twitch
- sustained work at slow speeds
- less power but more resistant to fatigue
What do Type I fibers rely on?
Are Type IIA fibers aerobic or anaerobic?
Describe Type IIA fibers?
- fast twitch
- stronger contraction
- more power than Type I
- faster speeds, more intense efforts
- used when switching between slow and very fast
What do Type IIA fibers rely on?
What are Type IIA fibers used for?
activities like jumping
What color are Type IIB fibers?
Describe Type IIB fibers.
- fast twitch
- most powerful but easily fatigued
- intense or explosive efforts
What do Type IIB fibers rely on?
- mostly glycogen
- some phosphate stores
What do Type IIB fibers produce?
Are Type IIB fibers aerobic or anaerobic?
What type of work is associated with aerobic pathways?
What type of work is associated with anaerobic pathways?
- competitive events
- rodeo events
What would you like to do?
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