Systems for analyzing customer behavior and perceptions in order to provide business intelligence.
Large fluctuations in suppliers' forecasts caused by small fluctuations in demand for the end product and the need to create safety buffers.
A trading exchange operated by a third-party vendor, not associated with a particular buyer or seller.
Systems for providing effective and efficent communication with the customer from the entire organization.
Computer-aided design (CAD)
Software used to create design drawings and three-dimensional models during the product design process.
Computer-aided engineering (CAE)
Software used to complement or replace the process of building prototypes during product development.
Computer aided manufacturing (CAM)
The use of information systems to control the production process of a product.
Customer interaction center (CIC)
A part of operational CRM that provides a central point of contact for an organization's customers, employing multiple communication channels to support the communication preferences of customers.
An enterprise portal designed to automate the business processes that occur before, during, and after sales between a supplier and multiple customers.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
A corporate-level strategy designed to create and maintain lasting relationships with customers by concentrating on the downstream information flows through the introduction of reliable systems, processes, and procedures.
Customer service and support (CSS)
A part of operational CRM that automates service and information requests, complaints, and product returns.
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
The digital, or electronic, transmission of business documents and related data between organizations via dedicated telecommunications networks.
Enterprise marketing management (EMM)
CRM tools used to integrate and analyze marketing campaigns.
Extensible business reporting language (XBRL)
An XML-based specification for publishing financial information.
Extensible markup language (XML)
A data presentation standard that allows designers to create customized features that enable data to be more easily shared between applications and organizations.
The movement of financial assets throughout the supply chain.
Addressing the customers' issues during the first call.
The movement of information along the supply chain.
A method to optimize ordering quantities so that parts or raw materials arrive just when they are needed for production.
Systems for automating the fundamental business processes-marketing, sales, and support--for interacting with the customer.
An access point (or front door) through which a business partner accesses secured, proprietary information from an organization (typically using extranets)
The movement of goods from the supplier to production, from production to distribution, and from distribution to the consumer.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
The use of electromagnetic energy to transmit information between a reader (transciever) and a processing device; used to replace bar codes and bar code readers.
The processing device used in an RFID system that uniquely identifies an object.
Sales force automation (SFA)
CRM systems to support the day-to-day sales activities of an organization.
The use of social media for customer relationship management.
Social media monitoring
The process of identifying and assessing the volume and sentiment of what is being said in social media about a company, individual, product or brand.
A subset of an organization's extranet designed to automate the business processes that occur before, during and after sales have been transcended between a single buyer and multiple suppliers. Also referred to as a "sourcing portal" or "procurement portal."
The collection of companies and processes involved in moving a product from the suppliers of raw materials, to the suppliers of intermediate components, to final production, and ultimately to the customer.
Supply chain analytics
The use of key performance indicators to monitor performance of the entire supply chain, including sourcing, planning, production, and distribution.
Supply chain effectiveness
The extent to which a company's supply chain is focusing on maximizing customer service, with lesser focus on procurement, production, and transportation costs.
Supply chain efficiency
The extent to which a company's supply chain is focusing on minimizing procurement, production, and transportation costs, sometimes by reducing customer service.
Supply chain execution (SCE)
The execution of supply chain planning, involving the management of product flows, information flows, and financial flows.
Supply chain management (SCM)
Information systems focusing on improving upstream information flows with two main objectives-to accelerate product development and to reduce costs associated with procuring raw materials components, and services from suppliers.
Supply chain planning (SCP)
The process of developing various resource plans to support the efficient and effective production of goods and services.
Supply chain visibility
The ability to track products as they move through the supply chain and to foresee external events.
The network of multiple (sometimes interrelated) producers of supplies that a company uses.
Vendor-managed inventory (VMI)
A business model in which the suppliers to a manufacturer (or retailer) manage the manufacturer's (or retailer's) inventory levels based on preestablished service levels.
A market comprised of firms within a specific industry sector.
A command that is inserted into a document in order to specify how information should be interpreted and used.