Microbiology

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naturalgryl
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247715
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Microbiology
Updated:
2013-11-19 00:55:57
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Disease
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Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
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  1. What is Pathology?
    scientific study of disease
  2. What is etiology?
    the cause of disease
  3. What is Pathogenesis?
    the manner is which the disease develops

    changes caused by disease and the final effects on the body
  4. Infection?
    invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microorganisms differs from.. disease
  5. Disease?
    when an infection causes a change from the normal state of health
  6. Normal Microbiota(flora)?
    micro.which colonize the body but do not produce disease under normal circumstances
  7. Transient Microbiota
    those which are present but only temporarily
  8. What can normal microbiota do?
    Normal microbiota can prevent or overgrowth of harmful organisms through competition...
  9. What is called when normal microbiota can prevent disease or overgrowth of harmful organisms through competition?
    microbial antagonism
  10. What are Bacteriocin?
    protein toxins produced  by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacteria
  11. Symbiosis?
    the host and microbiota living together
  12. If symbiosis benefits and other isnt harmed, then it is called?
    commensalism
  13. Symbiosis, if both benefit it is called?
    mutualism
  14. Symbiosis, if the host is harmed, then it is called?
    parasitism
  15. What are opportunistic pathogens?
    organisms which do not normally cause disease but will cause disease if the person is weakened

    ex.from previous disease or immunosuppression such as cancer therapy
  16. How did Kochs Postulates prove the cause of an infectious disease?
    • >microorganisms are grown in pure culture
    • >Microorganisms are identifed
    • >are injected in to a healthy rat
    • >the disease reproduced in the rat
    • >the microgranisms taken from rat are grown in pure culture
    • >identical microogranisms are identified.
  17. What are subjective changes in body function, pain,malaise, non observable?
    symptoms
  18. What are subjective changes that can be obeserved and measured.. lesions, fever etc.?
    signs
  19. What kind of disease spreads from one host to another? ... gential herpes
    communicable disease
  20. What kind of disease spreads easily from person to person? ..chickenpox
    contagious disease
  21. What kind of disease is not spread from host to host? (ex. opportunistic infections caused by normal flora or disease so as tetanus introduced from outside body)
    nondommunicable disease
  22. What is the fraction on a population that contracts the disease during a particular time period?
    incidence
  23. What is the fraction of a population having the disease at a specified time?
    prevalence
  24. What is a disease incidence that occurs only occasionally?
    sporadic
  25. What is a disease incident that is constantly present in population?
    endemic
  26. What is disease incidence when many people in a given area acquire a certain disease in relatively short time period?
    epidemic
  27. What is incidence where there is a world wide endemic?
    pandemic
  28. Acute?
    When a disease develops rapidly but last only a short time (flu)
  29. Chronic?
    When a disease  develops more slowly and often is less severe but can be continual or recurrent.
  30. When a disease is inactive for a time it is called?
    latent
  31. What is another name fo new of changing diseases showing an increase incidence in the recent past or a potential to increase in the near future?
    emerging infectious diseases
  32. What does it mean when it is said the Extent of Host Involvement?
    how much of the body is affected
  33. A systemic (generalized) infection is when?
    disease is spread through out the body
  34. Bacteremia?
    presence of bacteria in the blood
  35. Septicemia
    bacteria that multiply in the blood
  36. When there is a precense of toxins in blooc (tetnus)?
    toxemia
  37. When the is a precense of a virus in the blood?
    viremia
  38. A actute infection that caused the intial illness is called what type of infection?
    the primary infection
  39. Infection that is opportunistic pathogen taking advantage of the weakended defenses due to the primary infections is called?
    a secondary infection
  40. A source of infection can be living or non-living are called? Can also be non-living soil or water (ex. fungi in soil, botulism and tetnus, water: cholera.
    reservoirs
  41. The reservoirs that that transmit from person to person. Carriers some of which do not exhibit symptoms are_?
    Humans
  42. The reserviors that transmitts to human from animals are called?
    zoonoses
  43. The spread of a disease by direct or indirect contact or droplets. (ex.kissing, touching)?
    contact transmission
  44. Indirect contact spread to susceptible host through a non-living object is called?
    fomite.. Droplet, vehicle, and vector transmissions are examples.
  45. What type of infection thats does not show any evidence of being present or incubating at the time of admission to a hospital (5-15%) patients acquire are ?
    nosocomial infections
  46. What are factors of Nosocomial ?
    • >microrganims in the hospital
    • >weakends state of the host
    • >chain of trasmission: used to be mainly gram + now mostly -
    • impaired due to primary infection drug, radiation, burn therapy
    • >can transfer patient to patient, staff to patient
  47. reventative prodcedures ex: isolation use of disposable or carefully sterlize equipment before reusing, monitoring precedures to trace causes is called?
    control
  48. situations or factors in the host making the susceptible to certain diseases are
    predisposing factors
  49. Incubation period?
    time between infection and apperance of symptoms or signs
  50. Prodromal Period?
    period in some diseases: short period of mild symptoms
  51. Period of Illness?
    overt signs and symptoms, if not overcome patient can die
  52. Period of Decline?
    signs and symptom diminish, may cause seconday infections
  53. Period of Convalescene?
    regains strength and returns to normal state
  54. Epidemology?
    study of when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations
  55. Descriptive epidemiology?
    collection of data that describes the occurrence of the disease under study
  56. Analytical epidemiology?
    analyzes a particulear disease to determine its probable cause  (risk factors)
  57. experimental epidemiology
    makes hypothesis about a particular disease and experiments to test this hypothesis with a group of people
  58. Requiring reporting of certain disease cases to the state and national level. Used to keep track of the spread of disease is?
    case reporting
  59. central source of epidemiological information in the  US , Publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
    CSC center for disease control and prevention
  60. Morbidity?
    is indcidence of specific notifiable diseases
  61. Mortality?
    number of deaths from diseases.

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