Card Set Information
Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
What is Pathology?
scientific study of disease
What is etiology?
the cause of disease
What is Pathogenesis?
the manner is which the disease develops
changes caused by disease and the final effects on the body
invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microorganisms differs from.. disease
when an infection causes a change from the normal state of health
micro.which colonize the body but do not produce disease under normal circumstances
those which are present but only temporarily
What can normal microbiota do?
Normal microbiota can prevent or overgrowth of harmful organisms through competition...
What is called when normal microbiota can prevent disease or overgrowth of harmful organisms through competition?
What are Bacteriocin?
protein toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacteria
the host and microbiota living together
If symbiosis benefits and other isnt harmed, then it is called?
Symbiosis, if both benefit it is called?
Symbiosis, if the host is harmed, then it is called?
What are opportunistic pathogens?
organisms which do not normally cause disease but will cause disease if the person is weakened
ex.from previous disease or immunosuppression such as cancer therapy
How did Kochs Postulates prove the cause of an infectious disease?
>microorganisms are grown in pure culture
>Microorganisms are identifed
>are injected in to a healthy rat
>the disease reproduced in the rat
>the microgranisms taken from rat are grown in pure culture
>identical microogranisms are identified.
What are subjective changes in body function, pain,malaise, non observable?
What are subjective changes that can be obeserved and measured.. lesions, fever etc.?
What kind of disease spreads from one host to another? ... gential herpes
What kind of disease spreads easily from person to person? ..chickenpox
What kind of disease is not spread from host to host? (ex. opportunistic infections caused by normal flora or disease so as tetanus introduced from outside body)
What is the fraction on a population that contracts the disease during a particular time period?
What is the fraction of a population having the disease at a specified time?
What is a disease incidence that occurs only occasionally?
What is a disease incident that is constantly present in population?
What is disease incidence when many people in a given area acquire a certain disease in relatively short time period?
What is incidence where there is a world wide endemic?
When a disease develops rapidly but last only a short time (flu)
When a disease develops more slowly and often is less severe but can be continual or recurrent.
When a disease is inactive for a time it is called?
What is another name fo new of changing diseases showing an increase incidence in the recent past or a potential to increase in the near future?
emerging infectious diseases
What does it mean when it is said the Extent of Host Involvement?
how much of the body is affected
A systemic (generalized) infection is when?
disease is spread through out the body
presence of bacteria in the blood
bacteria that multiply in the blood
When there is a precense of toxins in blooc (tetnus)?
When the is a precense of a virus in the blood?
A actute infection that caused the intial illness is called what type of infection?
the primary infection
Infection that is opportunistic pathogen taking advantage of the weakended defenses due to the primary infections is called?
a secondary infection
A source of infection can be living or non-living are called? Can also be non-living soil or water (ex. fungi in soil, botulism and tetnus, water: cholera.
The reservoirs that that transmit from person to person. Carriers some of which do not exhibit symptoms are_?
The reserviors that transmitts to human from animals are called?
The spread of a disease by direct or indirect contact or droplets. (ex.kissing, touching)?
Indirect contact spread to susceptible host through a non-living object is called?
fomite.. Droplet, vehicle, and vector transmissions are examples.
What type of infection thats does not show any evidence of being present or incubating at the time of admission to a hospital (5-15%) patients acquire are ?
What are factors of Nosocomial ?
>microrganims in the hospital
>weakends state of the host
>chain of trasmission
: used to be mainly gram + now mostly -
impaired due to primary infection drug, radiation, burn therapy
>can transfer patient to patient, staff to patient
isolation use of disposable or carefully sterlize equipment before reusing, monitoring precedures to trace causes
situations or factors in the host making the susceptible to certain diseases are
time between infection and apperance of symptoms or signs
period in some diseases: short period of mild symptoms
Period of Illness?
overt signs and symptoms, if not overcome patient can die
Period of Decline?
signs and symptom diminish, may cause seconday infections
Period of Convalescene?
regains strength and returns to normal state
study of when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations
collection of data that describes the occurrence of the disease under study
analyzes a particulear disease to determine its probable cause (risk factors)
makes hypothesis about a particular disease and experiments to test this hypothesis with a group of people
Requiring reporting of certain disease cases to the state and national level. Used to keep track of the spread of disease is?
central source of epidemiological information in the US , Publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
CSC center for disease control and prevention
is indcidence of specific notifiable diseases
number of deaths from diseases.