Psychology Exam 4

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Psychology Exam 4
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Psych Exam Emotion Motivation Developmental Wachsmuth
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Exam 4 Wachsmuth
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  1. Emotion
    Change in psychological state that tends to result in a specific source and motivates a specific action.

    3 Basic Components - subjective experience, physiological response. and behavioral expressive response.

    According to evolutionary psychologist emotional intelligence is needed to succeed in life. Emotion is a product of evolution that help solve important adaptive problems.
  2. Mood
    General state, last longer w/ no specific source
  3. Paul Ekman
    (1934-Present)
    Emotional researcher
    Identify six basic cross cultural emotions w/ facial expressions.

    Cultural Universals: fear, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, sadness

    Found a culture in a New Guinea that these facial expressions were present. Also identified two more emotions that were universally different in facial expressions.

    Our cultures provided display rules that governs emotions.

    Examined 2 different research labs from Berkeley & Tokyo participates watching video alone in the room. Experimenter watched w/  the people in the U.S. facial expressions of fear, anger and disgust but people from Japan covered up negative views as an over lay of culture of display rules
  4. Developmental Psychology
    Wild Boy of Aveyron
    Rousseau suggest that civilization has corrupted us and that children are born w/ instinctive skills and knowledge. Argues a hands off child development. 

    No language acquisition, unable to learn language.

    "Window for opportunity to learn language and develop social skills suggest that there's this basic issue of nature v.s. nurture."
  5. Developmental Psychology
    is a sub-field of psychology that studies the course and courses of physical, social, emotional, moral and intellectual development over a person's life span.

    The term "development" in this context refers to age related changes that are systematic sequential and long-lasting.

    Developmental psychologist often study when certain types of behavior 1st appears, how these behaviors change w/ age & whether the changes occur suddenly or gradually.
  6. Arnold Gesell
    Motor skills -Six stages order in which these occur

    Maturation - involves natural growth/change that unfold in a fixed sequence
  7. Jean Piaget (1869-1980)
    • Impact research in developmental psychology
    • Influences in nature/nurture were inseparable and interactive. Interactionist. 

    Children are guided by mental images of objects and their own actions. Children are active learners. Children are like little scientist, developing theories of how the world works.

    • Schemas - mental images that are the basic units of knowledge. They are generally formed through experiences w/ the world.
    • They function to organize past experiences and provide a frame work for understanding future experiences.

    • Schematic processing
    • Two types
    • Assimilation - new stimulus is process in tems of current schema
    • Accommodation - current schema are changed to fit new stimuli.
  8. Piaget's 4 Developmental Stages
    Piaget is interested in mistakes of children that adults don't make (cognitive development)

    Meaning making - refers to the child's active attempts to make sense of the world and experiences

    Ex. Reflect child's meaning making develops schema that liquid forms a line w/ a glass that is tilted.

    Piaget's 4 stages of developmental stages

    Sensorimotor period (Birth-2) sensory functions and motor skills.

    Children at this stage are focused on exploring the world using their senses and their ability to move toward the end of the stage, they develop object permanence & the understanding that concepts & mental images represent objects people and events.

    Only form schemas that can sensed. Cannot think about absent objects. (Mental representation)

    Peroperation period (2-7) appreciate function of model - miniaturization

    • Children at this stage can mentally represent and refer to objects & events w/ symbols towards the end of this stage.
    • They develop the ability to conserve and logically reason. Intuitive knowledge and thought.
    • Principle of conservation - stay the same
    • Concept of reversibility/concept of complimentary

    • Concrete operational period (7-12) full understanding.
    • Children at this stage are able to conserve and understand other logical mental operations; however, they can only think logically about concrete events until the end of the stage, when they being abstract thinking.

    • Formal Operational period (12-adult)
    • able to develop the ability to use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events and situations this gives them the capacity to think logical possibilities and systematically examine & test hypothesis
  9. Kohlberg > Moral development in a quantitative way. Presented people w/ hypothetical moral dilemmas & ask how they would solve cross-cultural
    *Henz Dilemma*
    • Moral reasoning develop in six stages
    • 1. obeying & avoiding punishment (self)
    • 2. making a fair trade (self)
    • 3. getting other people's approvals (community)
    • 4. following rules & social orders (community)
    • 5. respecting rules & laws, but recognizing they have limits of society (universal principles)
    • 6. following self-chosen ethical principles (justice, equality, respect for human rights & life) 

    • Stages (1-4) are cultural universals
    • (5-6) are vary between cultures especially collectivistic cultures. Emphasis in community rather than individualism.
  10. Carol Gilligan
    • Colleague of Kohlberg
    • suggest that Kohlberg's theory has an unintentional male basis

    Believes that women and men are psychological different. Women are more focused on fulfilling human needs and protecting relationships. Justice is more moral in ranking.

    • A better organization would be 1/2 directions
    • (3/4) caring (5/6) justice

    2 choices rather than a hierarchy of ranking
  11. John Bowldy (psycho-analyst)
    • Attachment -Deep affectionate close enduring bond.
    • Research
    • Observed separation of parent (died in WW II) & child
    • Problematic to child development
  12. Henry Harlow
    Study human attachment through monkeys in the 1950s.

    Took new born monkeys and had two artificial mothers. Wire mother and terry cloth mother.

    The wire mother has a food dispenser.

    Harlow reasoned that if food was associate w/ attachment, wire mother would be more sought after.

    Monkeys bonded more w/ terry cloth. Harlow found in psychological distress terry cloth provide contact comfort rather than food providing.

    • Also, investigated what happens when isolation occurs. Monkey is isolated for a year and then is integrated into society
    • Monkey attacks himself. Dramatic self-hurting and remains in adult life. Sexuality/interest is seen as an attack and maternal behaviors are extremely poor.

    • *Cycle of abuse*
    • Supportive on Harlow - clear undeniable essence of contact comfort cause & effect relationship

    Opposed - growing up isolated & alone makes you abusive is obvious w/o observation
  13. Erik Erikson
    Psycho-analyst
    Development occurs throughout entire life.

    Psycho-social stages - intertwined social world & psychology. Each stage has a crisis/conflict

    • Age  Psycho-social task 
    • 0-1   Trust v.s. Mistrust
    • 1-3   Autonomy v.s. Shame&doubt 
    • 3-6   Initiative v.s. Guilt   
    • 6-12    Competence v.s. inferiority 
    • 12-19  Identity v.s. role confusion
    • 20-40  Intimacy v.s. Isolation
    • 40-65  Generality v.s. Stagnation
    • 65+     Integrity v.s. Despair

    Primarily descriptive can't be prove/disproven
  14. Theories of Personality
    Freud's psycho-analytic theory
    Driven by fundamental biological survival needs which produced psychological tension until they are satisfied. Cyclical pattern

    • Sexual - aggressive drive > biological need
    • 2 Principles
    • Homeostasis - stable internal state
    • Hedonism - pleasure above all else
    • 2 Impulses
    • Eros - Life force based on drive to pursue creative impulse
    • Thanatos - aggressive manifest in sucide death instinct, kill each other

    Cycles of Eros & Thanatos

    Freud suggested that each person has a certain amount of psychic energy - libido. That is never created nor destroyed. (conservation of energy)

    If you suppress your impulse won't go away yet express itself later as a dream, joke, slip of the tongue (Freudian slip)/slip of the pen.

    Psychic determinism, all of your psychological events have causes.

    Motivational Theory - Freud is looking at what you want/desire. Freud's theory dreams represent wish fulfillment even when dreams are not apparent, they are hidden symbolically. 

    • Manifest content - part of your dream that you remember (conscious)
    • Latent content - hidden part you aren't aware of (unconscious)

    • Analogy of mind as iceberg, large portion is hidden similar to unconscious mind.
    • Levels of consciousness

    Ego - conscious mind. begins to function 6 months of age, mediator between ID and reality. Reality principle allows you to delay gratifications and understand reality.

    Superego - includes conscious and ego ideal (person you want to be) develops at five moral code. All info not currently aware

    ID - immature, illogical, basic drives, source of libido, entirely unconscious, lacks moral judgement, operates on the pleasure principle: seeking pleasure regardless of circumstances. 

    • Conflict based - struggle amongst humans
    • Repression talking threatening thoughts & pressing down on ID
    • Defense mechanisms involve self suppression, unconscious strategies that we cope.   

    Repression - pushing back unacceptable thoughts into unconscious

    Regression - acting in ways characteristics of early stages

    Reaction Formation - replacing an anxiety producing feelings w/ it's exact opposite typically going overboard.

    Rationalization - creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior.

    Sublimation - redirecting forbidden impulses towards a socially desirable goal

    Displacement - redirecting emotional feelings ex. anger to substitute target

    Projection - attributing your own unacceptable feelings to another person.
  15. Behavioral Theory
    Importance on larger social context, environment & behavior constantly interacting suggesting environment largely influences behavior/personality
  16. Behavioral Theory
        Social Cognitive Theory
    Reinforcement & punishment/ operate conditioning differs. Examine the effects of observational learning.

    Bandhura, cognitive variable are relevant to personality. 

    • Reciprocal determinism
    • mutual interaction between 3 main variables

    person's thoughts are just important as the environment & behavior.

    •              P (Freedom)
    •           E    B
    •              
    • *Both theories are deterministic, but different behaviorism - environment determinism
    • psycho-analytic - biological determinism
  17. Phenomenlogical theory
    reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory

    Focuses on subjective experience, more concerned on individual's perspective & view of the world.
  18. Phenomenlogical Theory
            Humanistic Theory
    4 Principles that define the mission of Humanistic Psychology.

    • 1. The experiencing person is the primary interest - focus on humanity 
    • 2. Human choice, creativity & self-actualization are the preferred topics of investigation.
    • 3.Meaningfulness must precede objectivity in the selection of research problems
    • 4.Ultimate values placed on dignity of the person.

    *Placing humans on a pedestal and differences amongst displacing humans as important and center. Should be an elevated study.

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