PRMM 903 Exam Review
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Most commonly used definition
Public relations is the management of communication between an organization and its publics”
What is PR?
- PR is too multifaceted to be incorporated into a single definition:
- it is a concept - communications management by an organisation with its publics
- A practice - dealing with publics, stakeholders and the media.
- Its effects on society - A category of persuasive communications done through the mass media or private lobbying by groups to advance their material or ideological interests.
PR definition, dimensions, and domain of PR
- Definition: managing strategic relationships
- Situational Roles: persuader, advocate, educator, crusader, information provider, reputation manager
- Primary functions: research, image making, reputation management, counselling, early warning, interpreting, communicating, negotiating, informing, educating, issues/crisis management
- Tactics tools used: publicity, product placements, web sites, publications, trade shows, corporate identity programs, corporate advertising programs, social media.
advice to management concerning policies, relationships and communication with its various publics
Determining attitudes and behaviours of pubilics to plan PR strategy
Work with media in seeking publicity or responding to their interest in the organisation.
Disseminating planned messages through selected media to further the organisation's interest
Respond to concerns, informing and motivating employees or association or club members.
Planned activity with a community to maintain an environment that benefits both the organisation and community
Develop effective public policy and help an organisation adapt to public expectations.
Relating directly with legislature and regulatory agencies on behalf of the organisation. Lobbying can be part of the government affairs program
Identifying and addressing issues of public concern that affect an organisation. Managing crises to limit impact on an organisation and its reputation.
Also known as investor relations or shareholder relations. Creating and maintaining investor confidence and building good relationships with the financial community.
Relating to other firms in the industry and with trade associations.
Activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them
Demonstrate need for an encouraging public support primarily through donations
Multicultural Relations/Workplace Diversity
Relating with individuals and groups in various cultural settings.
Combination of activities designed to sell a product, service or idea. May include advertising, collateral materials, publicity, promotions, direct mail, trade shows and special events.
Establish relationships and identify mutual interests, values and benefits between an organization and its key stakeholder.
Cause related public relations
gain media and public support through lobbying and publicity for causes. They sell ideas or causes not products. The purpose is to benefit society not an organisation and serves a broader public interest. examples are the disability trust, and WWF (world wildlife foundation).
Key figures of PR
- Ivy Lee - persuasion and father of crisis management - pennsylvania railroad. Lee shaped the declaration of principles which referred to the source of a media release , on whose behalf, and presentation of information was truthful.
- Edward Bernays (theories of mass psychology) father of propaganda - favourite technique was third party endorsement. Bernays was one of the main architects of the modern techniques of mass-consumer persuasion, using 'tricks' from celebrity endorsement to eroticising the motorcar. Most notorious for breaking the taboo on women smoking by persuading them that cigarettes were a symbol of independence and freedom.
PR & Marketing
- Similarities: focused on external parties, deal with communication, persuasion, public opinion and relationships, segmentation, strategic management functions.
- Differences: Scope of operations, types of stakeholders, different skills in terms of analysis and communication, attitude and approach.
Four models of PR
- Press agentry/ publicity: one way communication where truth is not essential. It is generally used for propaganda with information being transmitted from the source to receiver. Barnum was a user of Press agentry in the past however an emphasis on ethical press agentry has become evident with the use of promotional stunts and activites creating publicity being used for concerts, exhibitions, public displays, sporting events and cinema and theater shows. Sir Richard Branson is renowned as a willing participant in stunts to promote his various Virgin brands. Most vigorously used in the USA.
- Public Information: one way information where truth is important to disseminate information. It is transmitted from the source to the receiver. Used by government agencies, companies, associations Not for profits and educational institutions.
- Two-way asymmetric: two way communication with imbalanced effects for the purpose of scientific persuasion. It transmits from source to receiver with the provision of feedback. Research is formative; evaluative of attitudes. characterised by advocacy persuasion. Organisation puts its own needs first and does not try to change from feedback but change opinion. Formative research is done to find out what the public will accept.
- Two-way symmetric: two way communication with balanced effects to stimulate mutual understanding. It is transmitted from group to group with the provision of feed back. research is formative; evaluative of understanding.
Media Effects Theories - based on mass communication concepts - responses go through a series of steps of communication with each logically leading to the next. originally included 6 steps but was expanded over time. Expanded to 13 steps but does not account for the fact that people aren't logical and may miss some steps or relate strongly with others.
- Hierarchy of effects model
- 1. Message is communicated
- 2. Attention
- 3. Message understood.
- 4. Receiver convinced
- 5. Attitude retained.
- 6. Desired behaviour.
- According to the hierarchy of effects model, there are at least 3 basic orderings of knowldege, attitude and behaviour relative to persuasion:
- 1. when personal involvement is low and little difference exists between behavioural alternatives, knowledge changes are likely to lead directly to behavioural changes.
- 2. When personal involvement is high but behavioural alternatives are indistinguishable, behavioural change is likely to be followed by attitudinal changes.
- 3. When personal involvement is high and clear differences exist among alternatives, people act in a more rational manner. First they learn about the issue, second they evaluate the alternatives. Then they act in a manner consistent with their attitudes and knowledge.
The communication model
Sender - encode - channel message-decoding-receiver (with response feedback and noise), senders field of experience overlapping with receivers field of experience
The key task for public relations professionals is not constructing messages but ensuring that a shared zone of meaning is established.
Media effects Theories: Diffusion of Innovations theory
Diffusion theory is about the mental processes a person goes through when accepting a new idea or a new product. Innovations are new ideas, new technologies, new forms of behaviour, fads and fashions.
- Bottom to top:
- Awareness: individual exposed to an idea, but receives little information about it.
- Interest: idea has to arouse the individual
- Evaluation: individual considers the idea and decides whether or not to try it.
- Trial: individual tries the idea on a small scale.
- Adoption: Final acceptance when the person adopts it completely.
Motivation Hygiene theory: Herzberg found that fixing causes of employee dissatisfaction didn't necessarily create satisfied employees. He decided that the factors in an employees work environment causing job satisfaction were different from the factors that caused job dissatisfaction and developed the motivation hygiene theory to explain these results
- satisfiers were called motivators and included achievement, recognition, work, responsibility, advancement and personal growth.
- dissatisfiers were called hygiene factors include company policy, work conditions, salary, company car, status and security.
- In this theory the company must supply hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction and also motivating factors providing intrinsic satisfaction through job enrichment.
- Theory has been criticised on basis that it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Plus job satisfaction does not mean a high level of motivation or productivity.
- Theory remains valid as true motivation comes from within and not from factors external to them.
what is persuasion
- The use of communication in an attempt to shape, change or reinforce perception, affect (feelings), cognition (thinking) and behaviour).
- An intentional effort at influencing another's mental state through communication in a circumstance in the persuadee has some measure of freedom.
- It is the goal of the vast majority of public relations program.
- Means getting another person to do something through advice, reason or just plain arm twisting.
- Believed to be an integral part of PR.
- The most important skill in persuasive success is that of adapting messages to audiences. Skilled persuaders adapt their message to those they seek to influence.
- Grunig Believed to be two-way asymmetrical communication that is is unethical as it is set up to manipulate the publics for the benefit of organizations. Almost impossible to be ethical with an asymmetrical model.
- Porter argues that the symmetrical model is not ethical.
- The deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognition and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the sender
- practitioners spread the faith of the organisation involved, often though incomplete, half-true or distorted information.
- Propaganda was a neutral term until WWI
- wartime propaganda tainted the term as the general public gradually realised the extent to which they had been manipulated to support the war effort. Later exploited by Hitler and Goebbles.
- Goebbels, like Bernays, used scientific methods to psychologically manipulate the propaganda audience through means such as the constant repetition of a few simplistic points.
- Word propaganda has since evovled to mean mass suggestion or influence through manipulation of symbols and psychology of individual.
- Involves use of images, slogans and symbols that play on our prejudices and emotions - goal to have the recipient come to the voluntary acceptance of a position as it it were their own.
- Assertion: stating a debatable idea as a fact (no qualification or explanation) - A record number of cyclones have been caused by climate change.
- Bandwagon: people like to belong to the majority group and dislike being left out. Manipulate people by appealing to these instincts e.g. thousands of satisfied customers can't be wrong!
- Cardstacking: Propagandist gives an unfair advantage to one point of view while weakening another. Can be done by presenting information our of context, or obscure or omit important facts.
- Glittering generalities: use of appealing by vague terms without context and without definition or explanation. eg. I stand for freedom.
- False dilemma: reducing a complex argument to a small number of alternatives and concluding that only one option is appropriate. e.g you are either for us or against us.
- Lesser of two evils: A specific type of false dilemma that offers two 'bad' alternatives. Propagandists offer the lesser of the two evils. e.g he may have not attended many council meetings, but he never embezzled money, unlike his opponent.
- Name calling: the use of negative words to disparage an opposing point of view, e.g. pig, terrorist, redneck, dole bludger.
- Pinpointing the enemy: simplifying complex issues by blaming a single enemy e.g. scapegoating them 'uncontrolled fishing has led to the fish stocks in this area disappearing.
- Plain folk: seeking to gain public confidence by appearing to be one of them, an average person, group or organisation in many ways. e.g using their phrases, turn of speech and talking of homely things in common.
- Testimonials: there are certain people who others tend to trust, even if the trust is based on mere recognition rather than credibility, or whether there is any logical reason for people to be convinced. e.g. politicians, celebrities, entertainers, sportspersons.
- Transfer: encouragement of the transfer of feelings and associations from one idea, symbol or person to another. similar to testimonials e.g. visual symbol of a lapel badge, proximity to national flag and a white coat used in a medical theme.
Key concepts that might help PR practitioners avoid the charge of propaganda:
- intent: communication itself is neutral, and so knowing intent can help the receiver to discern the nature of the communication.
- Free will: many definitions of persuasion emphasise the 'free will' of the receivers.
- Truth: ethical persuasion requires truth.
- Autonmy of audiences: an autonomous, active audience is important for the creation of ethical persuasion.
- Communications ethics:
Situational Theory on publics
- holds that the relationship between knowledge (awareness), attitudes and behaviour depends on several situational factors. The situation theory of individual communication behaviour uses three main variables to explain why people engage in behaviour and communicate in a process of planning that behaviour:
- 1. Problem recognition: people detect that something should be done about a situation and stop to think about what to do. Problem may arise externally from the situation, environment or social system, or internally from lack of understanding.
- 2. Level of involvement: the extent to which people connect themselves with a situation. Involvement is the degree of importance or concern that a product or behaviour generates in individuals.
- 3. Constraint recognition: people perceive there are obstacles in a situation that limit their ability to do anything about the situation. This discourages communication.
- The same profiles of publics remain relevant over different issues:
- All-issue publics: active on all of the problems
- Apathetic publics: inattentive to all of the problems
- Single-issue publics: active on one or a small subset of the problems that concerns only a small part of the population.
- Hot issue publics: active only on a single problem that involves nearly everyone in the population and that has received extensive media coverage.
- Situation theory identifies current and potential publics, the extent of their information requirements, and draws attention to possible obstacles to their involvement in a situation. Situation theory acknowledge that certain categories of people are constrained in how they can act by their level of income, knowledge, education and isolation. This raises possible issues of inequality and therefor ethics in relation to publics that may need to be dealt with.
Situational theory of publics
- Latent publics: groups that face a particular problem as a result of an organisation's action but fail to recognise it.
- Aware publics: groups that recognise that a problem exists.
- Active publics: groups that organise to discuss and do something about the problem.
Triggers for change
- Internal: structural redesign, administrative adjustments, disturbing results in results of products and service delivery, technology and process initiatives aimed at human side of the business, change in CEO.
- External: Macro and Micro environment, world events, legislation, trade regulations, advances in technology.
change is prevalent to all organisations
- a sense of urgency must be made before change can occur otherwise it is hard to get the staff to change from their comfort zone.
- Steps to successful change management:
- Establish a sense of urgency: examine the market and the competitive realities, identify crises, potential crises, major opportunities.
- Create a powerful guiding coalition: put together a group with enough power to lead the change.
- Develop a clear vision and strategy: create a vision to give focus to the change effort and align people's actions, develop strategies to achieve that mission.
- Communicate the change vision: use every means to constantly communicate the vision and strategies. Guiding coalition to role model. communicate by words and deed 10-100 times more than you think you have to.
- Empower employees for broad-based action: change systems, structures and people that are incompatible with the new vision.
- Generate short-term wins: proactive in creating and defining 'win opportunities as stages within the long haul. celebrate those that made win possible.
- Consolidate gains: leverage off the credibility of initial changes to produce more and deeper changes. Recruit to implement vision.
- Anchor the new approaches in the culture: clearly demonstrate the connection between the new behaviours and the organisational success.
- Although all organisations are in the process of changing, the nature of these changes can vary enormously and so we need a way to differentiate between the scale and scope of change experienced across different organisations and within the same org over time.
- Research indicates that the first 100 days of a CEO's tenure are a crucial period in which they must make a mark.
- A study in HBR reported that most successful CEOs normally implement at least 3 to 4 changes in their business withing the first 6 months of tenure
primary goals of employee communication during major change
- 1. ensure clear and consistent messages to educate employees on the vision.
- 2. Motivate employee support for the company's new direction.
- 3. Encourage higher performance.
- 4. Limit misunderstandings and rumors.
- 5. Align employees behind company's strategic goals
Communication employees really want
- job content and the skills required to perform well. (immediate supervisor)
- Regular feedback on their performance.
- The non-salary support they get from their employer. (immediate supervisor)
- Their team's role and performance (team meetings)
- How well the organisation is achieving its mission, and how local teams can support it. (CEO and Business unit heads)
- Employee involvement in decision making and workplace improvements.
can lead to employees going above expectations for an organisation.
- studies have shown that engaged employees can increase company earning approximately 2.5 times more than lower employee engagement levels.
- Employee engagement is symbiotic with employee recognition.
- Gamification provides instant rewards rather than wating for events such as annual reviews
- Research shos employees have three goals that they seek from employers: equity, achievement and camaraderie. Gamification helps employees reach achievement and camaraderie.
- Gaming element can increase productivity of participants by 50% showing that recognising achievement is a key element to employee engagement
- engagement can come in the form of employee wellness programs but the right level must be selected with a defined duration, prize and challenges.
- Gamification can be used successfully but can fail if used when no real understanding of the needs of stakeholders involved and replacing incentives with badges(no value) will not entice employees to do things they do not want to.
ethics - issues management
- Ethics is linked to your conscience.
- When there are crises such as product recalls, honest public relations and informative communication with stakeholders is important to recover reputation.
- Ethics is strongly associated with telling the truth. This is difficult task to master as one person's discernment of the truth can be very different to another person, even if the information they receive is the same. This is due to factors such as opinion emotion and perception.
- Truth is not the only factor in creating trust, Transparency is also required. Transparency is measured by how much an interested party can see and understand about a company.
- Professional ethics still has along way to go and passing off ethical responsibilities to other parties (board, legal departments) is touted as unprofessional. Volkswagen refused to comment until coroner finishes investigation showing the passing of ethical responsibilitiy
Post-crisis phase and communication
- post crisis phase can pose as an even greater risk to an org than the crisis itself. Post-crisis phase can also be used for image recovery. Organisations can use the post-crisis phase as a time of learning from mistakes made during the crisis to prevent a future reoccurrence.
- Post crisis phase involves: business resumption, evaluation and modification of the crisis management strategy and post crisis issues.
- Tasmania bush fires had a report that shows the evaluation and modification of the crisis management strategy through the discussion of the report findings.
- Unless a thorough review from the top down is conducted and reported to relevant stakeholders, then the organisation will fail to learn from the post crisis evaluation.
- Report shows recommendations accepted and 30 implemented immediately, indicating a willingness to learn from the the crisis.
- leaders are called upon to provide explanations and accounts of what occurred and that issues of blame must be accounted for before the repair and corrective actions can take place.
- issues of blame involve the failure to use computer simulation predictions by the fire department. Benoit's image repair typology is evasion of responsibility specifically the defeasibility strategy - stating that the computer simulations can be wildly inaccurate and should not be used to issue warning.
- Post crisis phase and communications must be monitored and managed as much after a crisis as during a crisis to ensure the organisation can learn from the crisis, correct their wrongs and regain their stakeholder's trust.
- aimed at building positive relationships and reputation.
- communication with political, community, financial, media, competitor, supplier and internal publics.
Corporate communication definition
can be described as the orchestration of all the instruments in the field of organisation identity (communication symbols and behaviour of organisational members) in such an attractive and realistic manner as to create or maintain a positive reputation for groups with which the organisation has an interdependent relationship (often reffered to as stakeholders). This results in a competitive advantage for the organisation.
- ¢"A concept whereby companies
- integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in
- their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis."
corporate stories as PR
Stories are a way of communicating, and especially managing change in organisational culture.
Stories are a powerful media for bringing about changes in people and in the culture of their workplace.
Why use corporate stories?
Build relevance and understanding around business decisions
Help employees appreciate their customers, their competitive environment and their personal role.
Helps a company remain consistent while dealing with the specific demands of many different stakeholders.
- “The identification, monitoring and analysis of trends in key publics’ opinions that
- can mature into public policy and regulatory or legislative constraint of the private sector” (Heath, 1997: 6)
- systematic ways of resolving any issue of public interest affecting an organisation.
- a driving motivation in issues management is that preparation is likely to lessen the negative effects the issue might have on the organisation.
- The focus of issues management is strategic issues: the trends, events and developments that meet three criteria:
- 1. they would affect the organisation's business performance.
- 2. The organisation would have to systematically mobilise resources to deal with them.
- 3. The organisation may reasonably expect to exert some influence over the outcome.
- Issues mangement is the long-range planning function of public affairs. some orgs use issues mgmt to confront scenarios 2-7 yrs ahead as well as issues closer at hand.
- True issue management involves a genuine and ethical long-term commitment to 2way inclusive standard of corporate responsibility to stakeholders.
- Exposure in the traditional news media has often been the deciding factor for and issue to become public. Issues tend to remain quiet until the media consider the matter to be newsworthy.
- an Issue must be big enough to affect the whole organisation not just a division or business unity.
problem vs issue
- problem: technical, based on demonstrable fact, usually technical solution, results can be measured, tends to be impersonal, mostly resolved in private.
- Issue: more emotional factors, depends heavily on opinion, solutions must be negotiated, results harder to measure - more complex, committed contending parties, often argued in public.
Difference between issues and crisis management
- crisis management: deals with the impact of a sudden adverse event that fractures the core of a company's operation and can be an immediate threat to survival of the business.
- Issues management: is about dealing with evolving public policy debate that over time shapes the way a company is permitted to operate.
Relationship with Crisis management
- If un-managed, all issues have the potential to turn into a crisis.
- Crisis management is reactive: it is about solving a problem the moment it occurs and has become publicly known.
- Issues management is proactive: it involves 'pre-crisis' planning, communicating openly and anticipating potential threats a company is facing. - preemptive crisis management
examples of crisis and issues
- aircraft crashes, their causes and the way victims are treated are crises.
- The size of aeroplanes, location and expansion of airports and the amount of available airspace are issues.
- Crisis management is about the now, and is largely tactical but still needs to be planned for and anticipated.
- Issues management tends to be about the future and is largely strategic.
Function of Issues Management
- anticipate and analyse issues
- develop organisational positions on issues
- Identify key publics whose support is vital for public policy
- Identify desired behaviours of key publics (e.g. do you want publics to change how or what they consume?)
Issues could be categorised as defensive and offensive
- defensive issue: where the org faces or is likely to face a hostile or potentially hostile public or regulatory environment. The org must choose either to respond or not to respond. If it does not respond it can do so reactively or proactively.
- Offensive issue: one where the org is not required to react to an external matter, but chooses voluntarily to generate an issue. This would normally be in the expectation that the issue being generated has the potential to create a positive environment or yield positive outcomes for the organisation.
definition of crisis
- The term “crisis” denotes something
- more serious than a “problem”.
- A crisis is a major occurrence with
- a potentially negative outcome affecting the organisation, industry, as well as
- its publics, products, services or good name. A crisis disrupts normal business
- and can threaten the existence of the organisation. (Fearn-Banks, 2007).
- Two forms (Seymour & Moore,
Cobra – the ‘sudden’ crisis
- Disaster that hits suddenly & takes
- the company completely by surprise
- Python – the ‘slow burning’ crisis
- or crisis creep
- Collection of issues that creep up on the
- company one by one and slowly crush it
eight types of crisis
- natural: black saturday bushfires
- Technological: design fault in prius brakes
- Confrontational: green peace and whaling ships
- Malevolence: tylenol product tampering
- Skewed management values: favours to employees in return for sexual favours.
- Deception: Deceiving employees about superannuation funds
- Management misconduct: enron
- Business and economic: GFS 2009
The crisis communication process
- (risk assessment – Guth & Marsh)
reputation repair responses
- attack the accuser: confront the person or group claiming something is wrong with the org.
- Denial: assert there is no crisis
- Scapegoat: blame an external person or group for the crisis
- Excuse: deny intent to do harm and/or claim inability to control the events that triggered the crisis
- Provocation: claim crisis was a result of a response to someone elses actions.
- Defeasibility: claim lack of information about events leading to the crisis situation
- Accidental: claim lack of control over events leading to the crisis situation
- Good intentions: assert organisation meant to do well.
- Justification: minimise the perceived damage caused by the crisis.
- Reminder: tell stakeholder about the past good works of the organisation.
- Ingratiation: praise stakeholders for their actions.
- Compensation: offer money or other gifts to victims
- Apology: indicate the organsiation takes full responsibility for the crisis and ask stakeholders for forgiveness.
- most effective is full apology followed by mortification, corrective action, bolstering. Denial least effective.
- denial was the most frequently employed response strategy despite producing the least effective outcomes. Only useful when there is doubt about a situation actually being a crisis or org is not held responsible.
- Most visible PR activity
- approx 40% of PR budget is spent on Media relations
- Traditional Vs Social media (traditional is a push while Social media is a pull approach). Social media technology gives anyone with access to a computer and the internet the ability to reach a potentially global audience at little r no cost. Lacks the structure and rigour to replace conventional journalism as a source of news but can augment the processes of traditional journalism and traditional PR but will never replace.
- What is publicity? Strategic, newsworthy information provided by and outside source, traditionally the main mass media tool of PR, today messages are more targeted via the internet and mobile technology.
Media relations tools
•The news release or press release was created by Ivy Lee in 1906.
- • A news release is a document whose primary purpose is the dissemination of
- information to mass media such as newspapers, broadcast stations and magazines.
- The media rely on news releases for two reasons:
- (1)Reporters and editors spend most of their time processing information, not
- gathering it.
(2)No media enterprise has enough staff to cover every single event in the community.
News release questions
- what is the key message
- who is the primary audience for the release?
- What does the target audience gain from the product or service?
- What objective does the release serve?
5 ws and how news release
- What has or will happen
- where it took place or will
- why it occurred or will occur
- when it occurred or will occur
- who to whom it will happen or has happened
- how it has happened or will happen
Media kit or press kit - prepared for major events and new product launches
purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of the information and resources that make it easier for the reporter to write about the topic.
Basic elements of media kits
(2) A news feature about the development of the product or something similar
(3) Fact sheets on the product, organization, or event
(4) Background information
- (5) Photos and drawings with
- (6) Biographical material on the
- spokesperson or chief executives
(7) Some basic brochures
Traditional vs social media
- the attention and excitement around social media, traditional media is still
- the best way to reach mass audiences.
- for social media to pick up
- An institutions planned, active and continuing participation with and within a community to maintain and enhance its environment to the benefit of both the institution and the community.
- Three aspects:
- Organisation: can operate with the support of the community
- CSR programs: to benefit the wider community
- Direct participation: by interested publics in decision-making processes for organisations - government departments and agencies(comm engagement)
Link between community relation, financial performance and reputation
good corporate citizens have an effect of reputation (good) which in turn effects share price. It is a cycle where they are all interdependent.
IAP2 Spectrum of public participation
Public participation goals, promise to the public with example techniques.
- Inform: provide the information to keep public informed ie media releases
- Consult: keep public informed, listen to and acknowledge concerns and provide feedback on how public input influenced decision - public meetings
- Involve: work with public to ensure concerns and aspirations are developed and provide feedback.
- Collaborate: partner with the public to get innovative solutions
- Empower: try to implement what the public decides.
Corporate Community Involvement Programs
Tactical:approaches organisations plan to discharge their CSR policy
Building relationships with stakeholders and community groups is becoming more and more important
Generally ongoing programs containing various projects intended to support the local community
Usually managed as PR programs implemented by s local CR team
Generally involve cross-section of employees in volunteer community events
are successful when the needs of the employees, company and community are all met.
is the participation of communities in the relevant decision making in the community interest and for the enhancement of community wellbeing.
- occurs in the public sphere and is important to understand what do we really want from the public?
- Their perspective
- their good ideas
- their constructive criticism
- their support
social exchange theory
- relationships involve the exchange of resources such as status, information, goods, services, security and love
- can be applied to organisation-public relations
- engagement with the community can result in loyalty towards the organisation.
What is community
- groups of people, whether they are stakeholders, interest groups, citizens
- A community may be a geographic location (place); community of similar interest(practice); or a community of affiliation or identity (industry or sporting club).
What is engagement
- The broad range of interactions between people.
- Can include: one way communication or information delivery
- involvement and collaboration in decision-making
- empowered action in informal or formal partnerships.
when to involve the community?
- Issue affects rights and entitlements of community members
- issue likely to affect people's quality of life
- issue affects natural environment
- significant number of people/groups likely to have strong or competing views
- Issue is technically complex
- Community agreement/acceptance is critical to longer term success of project
- Insufficient information available to make a decision about an issue.
when not effective/appropriate to involve community
- final decision already made
- community input is not going to be incorporated
- commissioning body cannot influence a final decision
- the issue requires and immediate decision (time critical)
How can community engagement be used?
- Inform the community of policy directions of government
- consult community as part of a process to develop policy or build community awareness and understanding
- Involve community through range of mechanisms to ensure issues and concerns are understood and considered as part of decision making process
- Collaborating with community to develop partnerships to formulate options and provide recommendations
- empower community to make decisions and implement and manage change.
Principles of engagement
- Need for clarity of objectives and of legal, linked and seamless processes
- consensus on agenda, procedures and effectiveness
- representation and inclusiveness
- capability and social learning
- decision responsiveness
- transparency and enhancement of trust
six c's of community engagment
- capability: the members are capable of dialogue
- Commitment: mutual benefits beyond self interest
- Contribution: members volunteer and encouraged members to take responsibility
- Continuity: members share roles and there is a transition process that sustains and maintains community corporate memory.
- Collaboration: reliable interdependence. A vision with members operating in environment of trust
- Conscience: embody principles/ethics of service, trust and respect that are expressed in actions
- reference or consultative group
- of annual review of environmental and social performance
- and donations in support of local community activities and projects of
- community benefit such as CIP’s
- speaker program involving company people speaking engagements at local service
- clubs etc.
- education program
- with local journalists
- tours and open days
What would you like to do?
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