MMI 302: Staph

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MMI 302: Staph
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2013-11-19 11:17:53
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MMI 302
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  1. Staph Morphology
    Gram + cocci
  2. Staph division pattern
    Divide on two planes, x and y axis
  3. Staph motility
    Non-motile
  4. Staph and oxygen
    Facultative anaerobe
  5. Staph and spores
    Staph makes no spores
  6. Staph test how with catalase
    Positive
  7. How does S. aureus test on coagulase
    Positive
  8. S. aureus express what kind of capsule
    5 or 8
  9. Where does staph. aureus colonize
    Anterior nares, also skin
  10. What kind of bacteria is staph. aureus in terms of pathogenicity
    Opportunistic pathogen
  11. Staph. aureus causes:
    skin infection, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, would infection
  12. Staph. epidermidis inhabits:
    • skin (normal microbiota, may protect against other pathogens)
    • Can grow on artificial materials used in medicine
  13. What does staph. epidermidis infect?
    Prosthetic devices, (heart valves and catheters)
  14. Staph. saprophyticus found where/causes
    Normal flora, causes urinary tract infection in young women (cystitis)
  15. Staph. epidermidis tests how with coagulase
    Negative (epidermidis is representative of coag-neg staph.)
  16. Staph. saprophyticus tests how with coagulase
    Negative
  17. Staph. aureus diseases:
    • SSSS (Staph. scalded skin syndrome)
    • Food poisoning
    • Skin infection (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles/carbuncles)
    • Tissue/wound infection
    • Bacteremia/Endocarditis
    • Pneumoniae
  18. Scaled skin syndrome (SSSS)
    • Aka Ritter's disease Affects infants/children
    • Clear w/o lasting effect, 7-10 days
    • Staph. aureus disease
  19. Bullous Impetigo
    • Staph. aureus culture from blisters
    • Staph. aureus disease
  20. Food poisoning
    • 1. Food stored poorly
    • 2. Enterotoxin produces by S. aureus in food
    • 3. Food consumed
    • 4. Bacteria dies, toxin does it's thing (heat/acid resistant)
    • 5. Illness ends with removal of toxins
    • BACTERIA NOT NEEDED FOR ILLNESS, JUST TOXIN
  21. Staph skin infections
    Impetigo, Folliculitis, Furuncles/Carbuncles
  22. Impetigo
    Formation of pustules on skin, often rupture and form crusty lesionsStaph. aureus disease
  23. Folliculitis
    • Pus-filled (pyogenic) infection of hair follicles (in eyelash is a stye)
    • Staph. aureus disease
  24. Furuncles/Carbuncles
    • Progression of folliculitis, carbuncles are clusters of furuncles.
    • Staph. aureus disease
  25. Tissue/Wound infection
    • Staph. aureus is great at this
    • Gets in threw trauma
    • Hard to prevent
  26. Bacteremia/endocarditi
    • Staph. aureus, common cause
    • Associated with use of dirty needles
    • Infection of heart can be deadly (endo)
  27. Pneumonia
    • Staph. aureus form can be deadly
    • Spread orally or blood-borne
    • Is highly oppurtunistic (attacks cystitc fibrosis or viral influenza)
  28. Important Staphyl enzymes
    • Immune evasion/binding: Staphylokinase, Fibrinogen-binding protein, Protein A, Super Antigen
    • Important Diagnostic Enzymes: Coagulase, Catalase
  29. Staphylokinase
    • Activates plasminogen to form plasmin which digests fibrin clots
    • This disrupts fibrin meshwork (keeps infection localized)
    • Cleaves C3b, IgG
  30. Fibrinogen-binding protein
    • Binds C3 to prevent lysis by complement
    • Staph.
  31. Coagulase:
    • Important for staph diagnostics
    • Identifies Staph. aureus
  32. Catalase
    Identifies between staph (+) and Strep (-)
  33. Protein A is a:
    Super-antigen
  34. Protein A use in research
    Binds to all antibodies, can be used to collect them all from a mixture if affixed to glass beads
  35. Staph. aureus uses what kind of toxin:
    AB toxins: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin
  36. AB toxins
    • A: active protein
    • B: binding protein
    • B gets A into cell, A produces virulence
  37. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin
    • PV Leuko. made by <5% of Staph. aureus, most MRSA though
    • Encoded by prophage
    • Made up of LukS and LukF
    • Make pores on phagocytic cell walls
  38. All 3 common types of Staph. aureus can be grown:
    BAP @ 37C
  39. Differential/selective Media for Staph
    • Mannitol-salts medium:
    • High salt (7.5% NaCl)
    • Inhibits most organism, Staph can grow though (selective)
    • S. aureus ferments mannitol causing yellow (differential)
  40. What kinds of hymolysis can Staph. aureus show
    Beta or Non-hemolytic (Gamma)
  41. Pigments forms by Staph
    • S. aureus: gold colored
    • S. epidermidis: white (no-pig)
    • S. saprophyticus: white (no-pig)
  42. What does coagulase do?
    • Converts fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
    • Bound: causes staphylococci to clump
    • Free: reacts with globulin plasma factor to make staphylothrombin
    • Can cause protective fibrin layer around staph. abscess
    • Found in Staph. aureus
  43. How to conduct coagulase test
    Dilute human blood plasma, mix with staph cells, look for clot.

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