Chapter 35: Plant Structure

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  1. Vascular plants have roots & shoots that grow from ______.
    Their tips (apices)
  2. Name 4 functions of the root.
    • 1. Anchors plant
    • 2. Penetrates soil to absorb water & minerals
    • 3. Roots can exert huge forces as they grow
    • 4. Roots are adaptions to living on land
  3. Name 4 functions of the shoot.
    • Stems are scaffold for positining leaves
    • Leaves are main site of photosynthesis
    • Flowers, fruits, and seeds formed on shoot
    • Repeating unit of vegetative shoot is: internode, node, leaf, and axillary bud (but not reproductive unit).
  4. 3 types of tissue for composing roots and shoots:
    • 1. Dermal tissue= epidermis
    • 2. Ground tissue= storage, photosynthesis, secretion, forming fibers for support and protection
    • 3. Vascular tissue= conducts fluids and dissolved substances
  5. What are meristems?
    Specialized cells in the root and shoot apices and other parts of the plant.
  6. Meristems in plants act like what in humans?
    Like stem cells.
  7. A _____ cell divides to give rise to a differentiating daughter cell and a cell that remains as a _____ cell.
  8. Apical meristems:
    Involved with extensions of roots and shoots
  9. Apical meristems are located ____.
    at tips of roots and stems
  10. Where are new cells added in plants?
    Added at the tips
  11. Primary tissues in plants are derived from what?
    Apical meristems
  12. The primary plant body is an extension of?
    The root and stem
  13. Root cap:
    Protects delicate cells of root apical meristem; sloughed off and replaced as root grows through soil
  14. Leaf primordia
    Shelters tender growing shoot apical meristem from desiccation
  15. The apical meristem gives rise to three types of tissue:
    • 1. Protoderm - forms epidermis
    • 2. Procambium - produces primary xylum and phloem 
    • 3. Ground meristem - differentiates into more ground tissue
  16. Xylum:
    Transports water
  17. Phloem:
    Transports nutrients
  18. ______ meristems are found in horsetails and corn. They are in the internodes and add to the length of the internodes.
  19. Lateral meristems are involved with what?
    Involved with increase in root and shoot diameter known as secondary growth
  20. Lateral meristems form from _____ _____ that is derived from _____ ______.
    • Ground tissue
    • Apical meristems
  21. (Monocots/Dicots) are the exception to lateral meristems and secondary growth.
  22. Secondary growth can increase girth in ________ plants, but the effects are most striking in ______ plants.
    • Non-woody
    • more striking in Woody plants
  23. Woody plants have two lateral meristems:
    • 1. Cork Cambium: contributes to outer bark of tree
    • 2. Vascular cambium: located just beneath bark; produces secondary vascular tissue
  24. ____ ____ is the main component of wood.
    Secondary xylem
  25. Secondary phloem is located where?
    Close to the outer surface of woody stem
  26. What happens if you remove the bark of a tree?
    Possible damage to secondary phloem, which may eventually kill the tree.
  27. Most of the trunk, branches, and older roots of trees and shrubs are what type of tissue?
    Secondary tissue
  28. The secondary plant body is made of?
    All the secondary tissues
  29. How thick is dermal tissue?
    Usually one cell layer thick in most plants
  30. Dermal tissue forms ___?
    Outer protective covering of plant
  31. The cuticle of dermal tissue is composed of ___. Why?
    Cutin. To protect young, exposed parts of plants
  32. Why might desert succulents have several layers of wax in their dermal tissue?
    To curb water loss and to help block UV raditaion
  33. Dermal tissue on plants sometimes forms...?
    Tree bark. Sometimes.
  34. Give 3 examples of dermal tissue:
    • Guard cells
    • Trichomes
    • Root Hairs
  35. Guard Cells:
    • paired, sausage-shaped cells that flank a stoma (opening) on leaves, stems, and fruits of plants.
    • Allow passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide and diffusion of water in vapor form
  36. Guard cells contain _____ unlike other epidermal cells.
  37. Is stomata more common on the upside or underside of leaves? Why? Give the exception.
    Commonly found on the underside of leaves to minimize water loss. Water lilies are the exception.
  38. Trichomes:
    • hairlike outgrowths of the plant epidermis
    • found frequently on stems, leaves, and reproductive organs
  39. What is the function of trichomes on plants?
    Helps keep surfaces cool, reducing water evaporation, protecting from UV radiation and high intensity. Serves as a buffer against temperature fluctuations.
  40. ____ trichomes may secrete sticky or toxic substances.
    Glandular trichomes
  41. Root hairs:
    • Extensions of epidermal cells, but NOT a separate cell. 
    • Increases the surface area to maximize water and mineral uptake.
  42. What are the 3 types of ground tissue in plants?
    • 1. parenchyma
    • 2. collenchyma
    • 3. sclerenchyma
  43. What does "chyma" mean?
    "to fill" or "filling"
  44. ____ is the most common type of plant cell. It functions as storage of food and water, photosynthesis, and secretion.
  45. ______ cells may live for many years (over 100 years in some cacti!).

    A. Collenchyma
    B. Sclerenchyma
    C. Parenchyma
    C. parenchyma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. ____ is found in stems and leaf petioles.

    A. parenchyma
    B. sclerenchyma
    C. collenchyma
    C. collenchyma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. _____ cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls more rigid. 
    A. sclerenchyma
    B. collenchyma
    C. parenchyma
    A. sclerenchyma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Most of the cells in fruits such as apples are _____.

    A. collenchyma
    B. parenchyma
    C. sclerenchyma
    B. parenchyma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. What is photosynthetic parenchyma called? Where is it found?
    Chlorenchyma-- found in leaves and outer parts of herbaceous stems.
  50. Give an example of Collenchyma
    Celery "strings"
  51. ____ has tough, but flexible cells that support plant organs allowing them to bend without breaking. 

    A. parenchyma
    B. collenchyma
    C. schlerenchyma
    B. collenchyma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the following have living protoplasm and can live for many years?

    A. schlerenchyma
    B. collenchyma and schlerenchyma
    C. collenchyma
    D. parenchyma and collenchyma
    E. parenchyma
    D. parenchyma and collenchyma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Xylem is made up of ____ and ____.
    Vessels and tracheids
  54. How does water move through xylem?
  55. Transpiration:
    Diffusion of water vapor from a plant
  56. Phloem is composed of ___ and ___.
    Sieve cells and sieve tube members
  57. Roots have 4 regions:
    • 1. root cap
    • 2. Zone of cell division
    • 3. Zone of elongation
    • 4. Zone of maturation
  58. What region of the root contains the apical meristem?
    The zone of cell division
  59. What region of the root extends the root through the soil?
    The zone of elongation
  60. In what region of the root do cells become differentiated?
    The zone of maturation
  61. What region of the root protects the root and functions in perception of gravity?
    The root cap
  62. ____ consist of a single large root with smaller branching roots
  63. Fibrous root systems:
    Made up of many small roots of similar size
  64. Adventitious roots:
    Roots that arise from the stem or some place other than of the plant. Adventitious roots can function in support, stability, acquisition of oxygen, storage of food and water, or parasitism of a host plant.
  65. Stems:
    Support for above ground organs in plants
  66. ____ carry leaves and flowers and support the plant's weight. Leaves are attached to the ____ at the nodes.
  67. Leaf arrangement may be:
    • 1. alternate
    • 2. opposite
    • 3. whorled
  68. Most often, leaves are arranges spirally around the stem approx. ____ apart.
    • 137.5°
    • This angle relates to the golden mean, a mathematical ratio found in nature. It is possible that this may maximize the exposure of leaves to the sun.
  69. Organization of ______ _____ is a major distinctive factor between monocots and eudicots (dicots).
    Vascular bundles
  70. Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue of the stem. (Monocot/Eudicot)
  71. Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the outside of the stem. The interior of the stem is pithy. (Monocots/Eudicots)
  72. (Monocots/eudicots) do not have secondary growth.
  73. (Monocots/Eudicots) exhibit secondary growth as the vascular cambium produces secondary tissues. This shows up as annual growth rings.
  74. What is the purpose of a modified stem?
    To carry out vegetative propagation and to store enutrients
  75. Bulbs:
    Swollen underground stem consisting of fleshy leaves attached to small knoblike stem with adventitious roots at base.
  76. Examples of bulb stems:
    • Onions
    • Lilies
    • Tulips
  77. Corms:
    • Look like a bulb, but when cut there are no fleshy leaves.
    • Stems with brown, papery nonfunctional leaves on the outside and some adventitious roots
  78. Examples of Corms:
    • Crocus
    • Gladiolus
  79. Rhisomes:
    • Horizontal stems that grow underground
    • Adventitious roots grow from the lower surface
  80. Examples of Rhizomes:
    • Perennial grasses
    • ferns
    • bearded iris
  81. Runners and stolons:
    Horizontal stem with long internodes that grow just above the surface of the ground
  82. Example of Runners and stolons:
  83. Tubers:
    • tips of rhizomes swell and become tubers
    • The "eye" of a potato is evidence of where a leaf formed when the tuber started to grow
    • The "eye" is an axillary bud and will grow into a new potato plant.
  84. Example of tubers:
  85. Tendrils:
    • Twining stems that aid in climbing
    • Tendrils of peas and pumpkins are modified leaves
  86. Examples of tendrils:
    • Grapes
    • English Ivy
    • Peas stems
    • Pumpkin stems
  87. ____ are the primary sites of photosynthesis.
  88. True or false: Leaves have a determinate structure
    • true
    • they stop growing at maturity
  89. Most leaves have _______ symmetry resulting in more surface area for photosynthesis.
  90. Blade of the leaf:
    Main part of leaf
  91. Petiole of leaf:
    Stalk that attaches leaf to main stem of plant
  92. Vein of leaf
    Vascular bundles made of xylem and phloem
  93. (Monocots/Eudicots) have parallel leaf veins.
  94. (Monocots/eudicots) have netted or reticulate veins.
  95. Simple leaves:
    blades are not divided
  96. Compound leaves:
    Blade divided into leaflets
  97. Leaf tissue:
    • 1. epidermis with guard cells
    • 2. vascular tissue
    • 3. mesophyll (site of photosynthesis)
  98. Modified leaves include:
    • Floral leaves (bracts)
    • Spines
    • Reproductive leaves
    • Insectivorous leaves
  99. Floral leaves aka ?
    • Bracts
    • Surround the true flower and act as showy petals
    • Poinsettia & Dogwood
  100. Spines:
    • Not the same as thorns or prickles
    • Modified leaves on cacti and some other plants
    • Reduce water loss and can deter predators
  101. Reproductive leaves:
    • Little plantlets growing along margins that when separated can grow full-sized plants
    • Kalanchoe
  102. Insectivorous leaves:
    • trap insects to provide supplemental nutrition for plant
    • These plants often live in acid swaps that don't provide all the nutrients the plant requires
    • Venus fly trap, sundews, pitcher plants
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Chapter 35: Plant Structure
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