ch 15

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gatorlea92
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247852
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ch 15
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2013-11-19 15:14:40
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musculoskeletal system med term hsa200 eku
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eku med term chapter 15 Musculoskeletal system
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  1. acetabulum
    Rounded depression in pelvis that joins the femur, forming the hip joint
  2. acromion
    Outward extension of shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder
  3. articular cartilage
    Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
  4. bone
    Dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton
  5. bone depression
    Opening or hollow region serving as a connection for bones, or passageway for blood vessels and nerves
  6. bone process
    Enlarged area that extends from bones as an attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  7. calcium
    A mineral constituent of bone
  8. cancellous bone
    Spongy, porous bone tissue in inner part of bone
  9. cartilage
    Flexible, rubbery connective tissue
  10. collagen
    Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues
  11. compact bone
    Hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around outer portion of bones
  12. cranial bones
    Skull bones:  ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal
  13. diaphysis
    Shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
  14. disk (disc)
    Flat, round, plate-like structure
  15. epiphyseal plate
    Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes in the immature skeleton
  16. epiphysis
    Each end of a long bone; area beyond the epiphyseal plate
  17. facial bones
    Bones of the face:  lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic
  18. fontanelle
    Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant
  19. foramen magnum
    Opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
  20. haversian canals
    Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone
  21. ligament
    Fibrous tissue connecting bones to other bones
  22. melleolus
    Round process on both sides of the ankle joint
  23. manubrium
    Upper portion of the sternum
  24. mastoid process
    Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
  25. medullary cavity
    Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
  26. metaphysis
    Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis and the epiphyseal plate
  27. olecranon
    Large process on the proximal end of the ulna
  28. orthopedist
    Medical doctor who specializes in bone, joint, and muscle conditions
  29. osseous tissue
    bone tissue
  30. ossification
    process of bone formation
  31. osteoblast
    bone cell that helps form bony tissue
  32. osteoclast
    Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
  33. periosteum
    Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
  34. phosphorus
    Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
  35. physiatrist
    Medical doctor who specializes in rehabilitation
  36. pubis symphysis
    Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the pelvis
  37. red bone marrow
    Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
  38. ribs
    Twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall; true ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8-10; floating ribs are pairs 11and 12
  39. sella turcica
    Depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
  40. sinus
    Hollow air cavity within a bone
  41. styloid process
    Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
  42. suture
    Immovable joint between bones
  43. temporomandibular joint
    Connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw
  44. tendon
    Fibrous connective tissue connecting muscles and bones
  45. trabeculae
    • Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous
    • bone
  46. vertebra
    • Individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous
    • process, transverse process, and lamina
  47. xiphoid process
    lower, narrow portion of the sternum
  48. yellow bone marrow
    Fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
  49. calc/o
    calci/o
    calcium
  50. kyph/o
    posterior curvature in thoracic region
  51. lamin/o
    lamina
  52. lord/o
    curve
  53. lumb/o
    • loins
    • lower back
  54. myel/o
    bone marrow
  55. orth/o
    straight
  56. oste/o
    bone
  57. scoli/o
    crooked
  58. phondyl/o
    vertebra
  59. vertebr/o
    vertebra
  60. -blast
    embryonic cell
  61. -clast
    to break
  62. -listhesis
    slipping
  63. -malacia
    softening
  64. -physis
    to grow
  65. -porosis
    • pore
    • passage
  66. -tome
    instrument to cut
  67. acetabul/o
    acetabulum (hip socket)
  68. calcane/o
    calcaneus (heel)
  69. carp/o
    carpals (wrist bones)
  70. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone)
  71. cost/o
    ribs
  72. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  73. femor/o
    femus (thigh bones)
  74. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
  75. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  76. ili/o
    ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)
  77. ischi/o
    ischium (part of pelvic bone)
  78. malleol/o
    malleolus
  79. mandibul/o
    mandibule (lower jaw bone)
  80. maxill/o
    maxilla (upper jaw bone)
  81. metacarp/o
    metatarsals (foot bones)
  82. olecran/o
    olecranon (elbow)
  83. patell/o
    patella (kneecap)
  84. pelv/i
    pelvis
  85. perone/o
    fibula
  86. phalang/o
    phalanges (finger, toe bones)
  87. pub/o
    pubis
  88. radi/o
    radius
  89. scapul/o
    scapula (shoulder blade)
  90. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  91. tars/o
    tarsals
  92. tibi/o
    tibia (shin bone)
  93. uln/o
    ulna (lower arm bone)
  94. Ewing sarcoma
    malignant bone tumor
  95. exostosis
    bony growth on surface of bone
  96. osteogenic sarcoma
    malignant tumor arising from bone
  97. osteomalacia
    softening of bone
  98. osteomyelitis
    inflammation secondary to infection
  99. talipes
    congenital abnormality of hindfoot involving the talus (clubfoot)
  100. joint articulation
    • coming together of two or more bones
    • Suture joints:immovable (skull)
    • Synovial joints: freely movable (ball and socket types, e.g., hip or shoulder), (hinge type, for
    • example, elbow, knee, ankle)
  101. bursae
    • Closed sacks of synovial fluid with a synovial membrane located near,
    • but not within a joint. Needed where sliding must take place
    • Common sites: 
    • between tendons (connective tissue connecting muscle to bone) and bones
    • between ligaments (binding bone to bone) and bones 
    • between skin and bones (with prominent bony anatomy)
  102. articular cartilage
    • Smooth,
    • glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint
  103. articulation
    any type of joint
  104. bursa
    sac of fluid near a joint
  105. ligament
    connective tissue binding bones to other bones
  106. meniscus
    Crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure found in the knee
  107. suture joint
    immovable joint
  108. synovial cavity
    Space between bones at a synovial joint
  109. synovial fluid
    Viscous fluid within the synovial cavity
  110. synovial joint
    freely movable joint
  111. synovial membrane
    Tissue lining the synovial cavity; produces synovial fluid
  112. tendon
    Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
  113. ankyl/o
    stiff
  114. arthr/o
    articul/o
    joint
  115. burs/o
    bursa
  116. chondr/o
    cartilage
  117. ligament/o
    ligament
  118. rheumat/o
    watery flow
  119. synov/o
    synovial membrane
  120. ten/o
    tendin/o
    tendon
  121. -desis
    • to bind
    • tie together
  122. -stenosis
    narrowing
  123. arthritis
    inflammation of any joint
  124. ankylosing spondylitis
    chronic progressive stiffening of joints, mostly spine
  125. gouty arthritis
    inflammation due to excessive uric acid in body
  126. osteoarthritis (OA)
    loss of articular cartilage and formation of bone spurs at articular surfaces; can occur in any joint, but mainly in spine, hips, and knees of older people
  127. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (synovial membrane)
  128. bunion
    swelling of medial aspect of joint between big toe and first metatarsal bone
  129. carpal tunnel syndrome
    compression of median nerve as it passes between ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist
  130. dislocation
    displacement of bone from a joint
  131. ganglion
    a fluid-filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon in the wrist.
  132. herniation of an intervertebral disk
    abnormal protrusion of the disk into the neural canal or against spinal nerves; “slipped disk”.
  133. lyme disease
    recurrent arthritis, myalgia, malaise and neurologic and cardiac symptoms; often marked by a “bull’s eye” rash at the site of the tick bite.
  134. sprain
    trauma to joint with pain, swelling and injury to ligaments without rupture
  135. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    chronic inflammatory disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart and lungs affecting collagen in tendons, ligaments, bones, and cartilage all over the body
  136. abduction
    movement away from midline of body
  137. adduction
    movement toward midline of body
  138. dorsiflexion
    backward (upward) bending of the foot
  139. extension
    straightening of a flexed limb
  140. fascia
    Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
  141. flexion
    Bending a limb; decreasing the angle between bones
  142. insertion of a muscle
    Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves
  143. origin of a muscle
    Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone
  144. plantar flexion
    Bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground
  145. pronation
    Turning the palm downward
  146. rotation
    Circular movement around a central point
  147. skeletal muscle
    Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or striated muscle
  148. smooth muscle
    visceral muscle
  149. striated muscle
    skeletal muscle
  150. supination
    turning the palm upward
  151. visceral muscle
    Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
  152. fasci/o
    fascia
  153. fibr/o
    fibrous
  154. leiomy/o
    smooth muscle
  155. my/o
    muscle
  156. myocardi/o
    heart muscle
  157. myos/o
    muscle
  158. plant/o
    sole of the foot
  159. rhabdomy/o
    skeletal muscle connected to bones
  160. -asthenia
    lack of strength
  161. -trophy
    • nourishment
    • development
  162. ab-
    away from
  163. ad-
    toward
  164. dorsi-
    back
  165. poly-
    • many 
    • much
  166. muscular dystrophy
    group of inherited diseases with progressive muscle weakness and degeneration without nervous system involvement
  167. polymyositis
    chronic inflammatory myopathy; may be an autoimmune disorder

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