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A conventional budget that gives detailed costs of every activity or program that is to be carried out.
- Pro- simple and detailed, lays out the costs to run a program & what goes into those costs.Con- can take years to make sure there is sufficient funding available to maintain budget
Zero Based Budget
Expenses or costs of the period year are not taken into account. All expenses/costs must be justified.
- Pro- helps identify areas of wasteful expenditures
- Con- can be problematic for departments with intangible outputs; time consuming
Performance Based Budget
Budget based upon the relationship between program fund levels and expected results from the program
- Pro- can improve performance because Hugh performing department will continue to get funding
- Con- fails to answer questions such as "what types of services are best suited for the program?"
The implementation, development and study of government
Attempt by government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations & procedures to resolve problems at hand
6 functions of Government
- 1. To form a more perfect union
- Peaceful social contract
- 2. To establish justice
- Judicial system
- 3. To insure domestic tranquility
- Military; department of justice
- 4. To provide for the common defense
- Local law enforcement
- 5. To promote the general welfare
- Provide social services
- 6. To secure the blessings of liberty
- 14th amendment; equal protection clause
Used to decide what is most important & who gets what proportion
The process of systematically relating expenditure of funds to the accomplishment of planned objectives
3. Control Process
1. Planning- Budget prep with established project
2. Management- programming of approved goals, resources, staffing& units functions
3. Control Process- standard operating procedure & audit functions
A review of programs or services to determine what programs and services should be initiated and which should be expanded or curtailed
Cost - Benefit Analysis
A technique of economic evaluation which values both cost and benefit in monetary terms. Necessary when dealing with public funds
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