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2013-11-19 17:21:55
Penn Foster

Behavior vocab
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  1. Ethology
    Study of animal behavior
  2. Species
    classification of animals
  3. Natural Selection
    process that awards survival and reproductive success to individuals and groups best adjusted to their environment
  4. Charles Darwin
    • revolutionized much of the study related to biology and ethology.
    • Published "On the Origin of Species" in 1859
  5. evolution
    characterizes all related organisms as descended from common ancestors
  6. Ivan Pavlov
    Russian physiologist who questioned the rold of instinct and experimented with bells and food and dogs and salivation
  7. Unconditioned response
    involuntary simple reflex behavior
  8. Unconditioned stimulus
    something that produces and unconditioned response
  9. conditioned stimulus
  10. behaviorism
    behavior is learned rather than genetically programmed
  11. john B. Watson
    American psychologist who came up with behaviorism. proposed an approach to psychology based on objective laboratory procedures
  12. stimulus response
    muscular and glandular responses that we can observe and measure
  13. Classical conditioning
    associating stimuli that happens at the same time or same area
  14. operant conditioning
    associating an activity with punishment or reward
  15. B.F Skinner
    expert on the mechanism of operant conditioning. Involved teaching a rat to press a bar for food
  16. trial-and-error learning
    • Instrumental learning
    • operant conditioning combined with classical conditioning
  17. sociobiology
    study of social organization in animals
  18. fixed action patterns
    predictable behaviors
  19. Instincts
    inherited or genetically coded responses to environmental stimuli
  20. Positive reinforcement
    any immediate pleasant occurrence that follows a behavior
  21. negative reinforcement
    any immediate unpleasant occurrence used to create a desired behavior
  22. Punishment
    unpleasant occurrence used to eliminate an undesirable behavior
  23. Positive punishment
    adding an undesirable occurrence to decrease a behavior
  24. Negative punishment
    removing a desirable occurrence to decrease a behavior
  25. Konrad Zacharias Lorenz
    one of the founding fathers of modern ethology. Dedicated much of his research to identifying various kinds of fixed action patterns
  26. Imprinting
    rapid learning process that enables the very young to recognize and bond with its caretaker
  27. sensitive period
    period of time when imprinting occurs
  28. Aggression
    behavior bred from an impulse to harm another being
  29. Separation anxiety
    animal feels anxiety when separated from the owner
  30. Conflict-related aggression
    when an animal is exposed to an uncomfortable or uncertain stimulus or conflict
  31. Avoidance conditioning
    learning that aggression will allow animal to avoid the conflict and uses aggression to lessen fear of stimulus
  32. Fear-induced aggression
    • occurs whenever animal is in a position where it cant escape.
    • Most common type of aggression
  33. Predatory aggression
    animal wont give a warning or show any threatening behavior
  34. Pain-induced aggression
    aggressive behavior related to pain that is a protective instinct
  35. Inter-male aggression
    male dogs/cats displaying aggression towards other maleĀ dogs/cats
  36. territorial aggression
    aggressive tendencies related to territory
  37. Post parturition
    period of time after giving birth
  38. extinction
    • behavioral modification technique.
    • involves elimination of a problem behavior by completely removing the reinforcement for the behavior
  39. Aversion therapy
    creating a relationship between an unpleasant stimulus and an object that an animal may be marking, chewing or otherwise damaging
  40. avoidance therapy
    use of negative reinforcement to diminish a problem behavior
  41. Habituation
    used to treat minor behavior problems involving surrounding the animal with stimulus causing the problem until the animal is acclimated to the stimuli and isn't afraid of it
  42. Counter conditioning
    replacing an undesirable behavior with a desirable one
  43. Desensitization
    behavior modification technique involves diminishing a particular behavior by gradually exposing the animal to the stimulus that produces the inappropriate response
  44. environmental modification
    problem behaviors that can be quickly and effectively treated by changing the environment
  45. Hormonal therapy
    administration of gonadal hormones (in particular, progestin)