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t or FIf the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine
T or F-it would actually concentrate the urine.
T or F -In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of thejuxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow ofblood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrentexchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmoticgradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medullathat allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.
T or F-The ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
T or FWater re absorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.
T or F- The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retro peritoneal.
T or Fthe entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.
T or F- Urine is 95% water by volume.
T or F- The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.
T or F- Glomerular filtration is an ATP‐driven process.
its driven by glomerular hydrostatic pressure which drives the fluids across the membrane.
T or F-In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water
ADH and aldosterone is needed
T or F- The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.
t or f_the collecting duct would not be able to without ANP,ADH,aldosterone.
T or F- The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.
T or F- Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.
it increases blood pressure by activating Gproteins also PH and blood volume.
also acts as the sodium hydrogen ex changer in the proximal tubuales. it stimulates sodium reabsorbtion and hydrogen secretion it also ties in bicarbonate reabsorbtion
T or F- Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate
it does that by enlargeing the tubules and reabsorbing more water and ions
T or F- Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.
it should be higher to help out GFR
T or F- The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.
its the distal convoluted tubule.
T or F- Urea is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle.
find out where urea is reabsorbed.
T or F- Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.
Gotta go Gotta go Gotta go right now!!
t or f-The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.
the myogenic mechanisim is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow inside the vessel.
T or F- An excessive urine output is called anuria.
its called polyuria
T or F- Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.
T or F- The trigone is named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.
T or F- Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.
T or F- The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.
look up macula densa
T or F- Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.
T or F- Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.
T or F- Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.
- -its called Hydronephorsis.
T or F- The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the.
Loop of Henle
T or F- urine flow from the kidney.....
- Pelvis of the kidney
- to the ureter
- to the bladder
- to the urethra
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to an
an increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of what type of epithelium.
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin
By a decrease in blood pressure
** remember angiotensin 2 jumps in to raise the blood pressure volume and ph and these 2 go together.
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
A) maintains blood osmolarity
B) helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition,volume, and pressure of blood
C) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide,water, salts, and heat
D) regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
no sloids no CO2
Which gland sits atop each kidney?
The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it
is drained by an efferent arteriole.
The descending limb of the loop of Henle
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves into the medulla.
Not permeable to water here.
Select the correct statement about the ureters.
- A) The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.
- B) The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the
- gastrointestinal tract.
- C) Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent
- the back flow of urine.
- D) The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a
- great deal of stretch.
B is correct.
the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it
holds the kidneys in place and a normal position
the renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
Bowmans capsule and space and the glomerulus.
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.
regulating the rate of filtration and controlling systemic blood pressure.
the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
- A) They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to
- contract in order to transport urine efficiently.
- B) They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
- C) They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
- D) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia
D IS CORRECT
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
- A) The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive
- systems but at different times.
- B) The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen.
- C) The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive
- systems at the same time.
- D) The male urethra is longer than the female urethra.
C IS CORRECT
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition(voiding)?
- A) the sympathetic efferents
- B) the pressure of the fluid in the bladder
- C) the stretching of the bladder wall
- D) motor neurons
C IS CORRECT
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
- A) renal fascia B) glomerular endothelium
- C) podocytes D) basement membrane
Everything except renal fasica.
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
hormonally controlled by the distal tubule.
The macula densa cells respond to ________.
changes in the solute content of the filtrate.
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted
- A) glucose B) N a+
- C) creatinine D) K +
C is not correct. no creatinine.
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of _______
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibts the realese of ADH.
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
constrict arterioles and raise blood pressure.
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density which is ________.
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
Nephron- collecting duct- minor calyx to major calyx, ureter then the urethra.
Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
- A) Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their
- B) The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous
- C) The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the
- proximal convoluted tubule.
- D) Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of
- the nephron.
B IS CORRECT
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
Net filtration will decrese.
Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
- A) granular cells
- B) macula densa
- C) mesangial cells
- D) podocyte cells
D IS CORRECT
Tubular re-absorption ________.
By active mechanisms usually has to move against the electrical and chemical gradient.
Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron?
they are extremely complex molecules.
Re absorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?
- A) form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very
- concentrated urine
- B) form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume
- of very dilute urine
- C) absorb electrolytes actively with an automatic absorption of water
- by osmosis
- D) none of these
A IS CORRECT
Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________.
the placeta allows the mother to clean away all the waste.
W hich of the following best describes kidney function in older adults(70 years or older)?
A) Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
B) Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless ofage.
C) Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.
D) Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.
Kideny function decreases due to kidney atophy
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
if the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that Amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.
appear in the urine.
look over why
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
that mostly all of the glucose is reabsorbed.
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water.
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
A) by secreting sodium ions
B) by secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate
C) by producing new bicarbonate ions
D) by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions
by secreting sodium ions.
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________.
Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
A) The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation.
B) The metanephric ducts will become the urethras.
C) Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
D) The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys.
Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
A) ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
B) ridding the body of excessive potassium ions
C) disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certaindrugs
D) eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid thathave been reabsorbed by passive processes
Which statement is correct?
A) Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
B) The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.
C) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
D) Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated asurine.
What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys
B) help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys
C) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by thekidneys
D) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by thekidneys
Which of the choices below is the salt level‐monitoring part of the nephron?
A) principal cell
B) macula densa
C) vasa recta
D) loop of Henle
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative waterreabsorption?
C) a trial natriuretic peptide
D) a ldosterone
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate controlmethod?
A) hormonal regulation
B) electrolyte levels
C) renal autoregulation
D) neural regulation
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulatorsof electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
A) angiotensin I and epinephrine
B) angiotensin II and aldosterone
C) angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide
D) angiotensin II and ADH
Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes insolute content of the filtrate?
The capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons is called the________.
104) Urine crystals in the renal pelvis are called ________.
The area between the ureters and urethra is called the ________in a bladder
107) The ________ mechanism is the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.
The presence of pus in the urine is a condition called ________.
109) Sodium‐linked water flow across a membrane is called ________water re absorption.
110) Explain how filtration works in the glomerular capillaries.
glomerular filtration are FENESTRATED and allow stuff to pass thru. After that they pass thru the basement membrane and are selected by size by the podocytes.
List three substances that are abnormal urinary constituents and provide the proper clinical term for such abnormalities.
- glucose- Glycosuria
- protein- proteinuria
- ketone bodies- ketonuria
- hemoglobin- hemogloinuria
112) Explain the role of aldosterone in sodium and water balance.
- Aldosterone targets the distal tubule and collecting duct and enhances sodium ion re- absorption so that very little leaves the body in urine.
- Aldosterone also causes increased water reabsorption because, as sodium is reabsorbed, water follows it back into the blood
Explain what is meant by the terms co-transport process and transport maximum.
co transport is the active process of one solute going against the concentration gradient.
transport maximum reflects the numbers of carriers in the renal tubules available to carry a particular substance
114) Humans can survive for a period of time without water thanks to the ability of the kidneys to produce concentrated urine.Briefly explain the factors that allow this to happen.
- Facultative water re-absorbstion depends on the presence of ADH. the pores of the collecting tubule will then enlarge and the filtrate will lose water by osmosis as it goes thru areas of higher osmolarity. then water is conserved and urine is then more concentrated.
- - the water is then reabsorbed by the body to prevent dehydration.
115) List and describe three pressures operating at the filtration
glomerular hydrostatic pressure is the main force pushing water and solutes across the filtration membrane. the higher it is the more filtrate gets across.
colloid osmotic pressure of plasma proteins and capsular hydrostatic pressure exerted by fluids in the glomerular capsule are driven back into the glomerular capillaries.
Net filtration= Glomerular hydrostatic pressure minus colloind osmotic pressure + capsular hydrostatic pressure togther.
116) In addition to the renin‐angiotensin mechanism, the renal cells produce other chemicals. Name four, and briefly give the main function of each.
Renal cells also produce chemicals, some of which act locally as signaling molecules. Thesechemicals include prostaglandins (vasodilators and vasoconstrictors), which probablyregulate GFR; nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium;adenosine, which constricts renal vasculature; and endothelin, a vasoconstrictor thatinhibits renin release
What are aquaporins?
are water filled pores in water-permeable portions of the convoluted tubule like the PCT.
Freshly voided urine has very little smell, but shortly after voiding it can give off a very strong smell. Why?
Freshly voided urine is relatively sterile but if it is allowed to stand, bacteria begin to metabolize the urea solutes to release ammonia and other smells depending on the person's diet. A fruity smell generally means there is a diabetes problem
The need to get up in the middle of the night to urinate is called________.