Psych Chapters 11-13

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nik8222
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247892
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Psych Chapters 11-13
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2013-11-19 22:07:22
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flash cards for test #4
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  1. Types of motivation
    • Innate motivation: 
    •    - hunger, thirst, sex, etc.

    • Acquired motivation:
    •    - achievement, money, drugs
  2. Views of Motivation: Instinct Theories
    • S. Freud, K Lorenz: motivation as an energy- hydraulic view 
    •    -When certain energies (hunger, sex) reach a     critical level (a certain pressure) they will be     released.
    •    -But if an appropriate stimulus is not                 available, they will be released to another         stimulus – displacement of energy
  3. Views of motivation: Drive Reduction Theory
    • Homeostasis 
    • Deviation from homeostasis creates need which creates drive
    • Behavior produces reinforcer that reduces the need and drive to reinforce previous behavior
    • ***All reinforcement is negative. Response terminates an aversive state
  4. Incentive vs. Drive Theory
    In Incentive, external stimuli "pulls" you to it where the drive "pushes" you to it
  5. Is Hunger a homeostatic drive?
    Yes
  6. What is a major factor in initiating hunger?
    a decrease in glucose entering cells
  7. what is the most abundant sugar in the blood?
    glucose, it is also important source of energy, especially for brain
  8. What are the two hormones secreted by the pancreas that work to regulate hunger & nutrition?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  9. Insulin
    • increases absorption of glucose into cells
    • production surges at beginning of a meal and falls off toward the end
    • secreted by pancreas
  10. Glucagon
    • converts stored nutrients into blood glucose 
    • produced between meals when energy is needed
    • secreted by pancreas
  11. Ghrelin
    • secreted by stomach lining when empty
    • basically a signal for you to eat
  12. What happens when insulin is in short supply
    Type 1 diabetes - the body will absorb little nutrition
  13. Weight: Short-term vs. Long term
    weight fluctuates in short-term but is very stable in the long run
  14. Set-point idea
    weight stays around the same "set point", fluctuation around it up and down
  15. mechanism that regulates weight in the long run
    Leptin (hormone)
  16. Leptin
    • regulates weight in long run
    • hormone 
    • works in hypothalamus to alert the brain that no more fat cells are needed
    • part of the system that triggers changes in puberty
  17. location of several areas critical to regulation of food intake
    hypothalamus
  18. Arcuate Nucleus
    part of hypothalamus
  19. lateral hypothalamus
    • starting eating 
    • damage to this area will cause starvation through lack of interest in food

    • stimulation- induction of eating
    • ablation- failure to start eating
  20. ventromedial hypothalamus
    • important for regulating the rate at which food is digested
    • damage to this area, people will digest food more quickly, eat more, and put on weight 

    • simulation- slowing/cessation of eating
    • ablation- failure to stop eating
  21. paraventricular hypothalamus
    • regulate satiety in short-term
    • damage to this area may lead person to literally eat until they are about to burst

    • stimulation- cessation of eating
    • ablation- failure to stop eating
  22. How do you know if someone is addicted to a substance?
    they need it, they rely on it, they cannot function without it and their tolerance increases
  23. Definition of addiction to a substance
    • Abuse
    • 1. Increased need for is
    • 2. Withdrawal if is not available 
    • 3. Use it to relive withdrawal 
    • Addiction: 1-3 plus
    • 4. Devote inordinate time/resources to it
    • 5. Interfere with "normal" obligations (work, social, etc)
  24. Is addiction just in drugs?
    • No, can be seen in activities too
    • Ex:
    •    - gambling
    •    - sports
    •    - sex
    •    - facebook
  25. Opponent-Process Theory
    • R.L. Solomon
    • emotional dynamics of repeated exposure to a powerful affective stimulus
  26. Stimulants: Cocaine
    • Brain mechanism 
    •    - self-administration
    •    - dopamine agonist: prevents re-uptake of          DA
  27. Opiates: Heroin
    • Brain mechanism
    •    - self-administration
    •    - Dopamine agonist: indirectly promotes            release of DA
  28. Stress
    an event that threatens or is perceived to threaten an organism's safety or well being which engages attempt to cope with the event
  29. Is stress always bad?
    No.
  30. Types of Stressors
    • Aversive physical events
    • Frustration - black of expected goal
    • Conflict 
    •    - Approach - Approach
    •    - Approach - Avoidance
    •    - Avoidance - Avoidance
    • Change
  31. Conflict: Approach - Approach
    • two equally attractive goals
    • ex: Pizza and Pasta, can only have one
  32. Conflict: Approach - Avoidance
    • One goal that has positive & negative aspects
    • ex: wanting to hook-up, rejection
  33. Conflict: Avoidance - Avoidance
    • Tooth ache - going to dentist
    • Back pain - surgery 
    • Jumping off cliff - being killed by a bear
    • Being caught between Scylla and Charybdis
  34. Physiological Responses
    • H. Selye: General Adaptation Syndrome
    •    - Alarm reaction
    •    - Stage of resistance 
    •    - Stage of exhaustion
  35. Event Appraisal: Complex Model and impact
    • Less Stress impact:
    • Chronicity 
    • Controllability
    • Predictability 

    • More Stress impact:
    • Acute
    • Uncontrollable
    • Unpredictable
  36. In class personality type results
    • number of questions students responded yes to:
    • 0 - 0 students
    • 5 - 41 students
    • 10 - 16 students
  37. Stress: Physiological Responses
    • Event appraisal > Stressor
    • 1. Hypothalamus > autonomic NS > sympathetic NS > Adrenal medula's > Release of NE and adrenalin
    • 2. Hypothalamus & Pituitary (ACTH) > Adrenal cortex secretion of corticosteroids
  38. Type A Personality
    • 1. Impatience & time urgency
    • 2. Highly Competitive
    • 3. Anger & Hostility
  39. Type B personality
    • 1. More patient 
    • 2. Less competitive 
    • 3. Less anger & hostility
  40. Type C personality
    • 1. Nice, patient, stoic
    • 2. Cooperative, appeasing
    • 3. Compliant w/ external authority
    • 4. Unexpressive of negative emotions
  41. Stress & disease
    genetics, diet and exercise have MUCH stronger influence than personality factors and emotional tendencies.
  42. Casual Attribution
    • Internal vs. External: 
    •    - me vs. outside of me
    • Stable vs. Unstable:
    •    - consistent across time vs. fluctuation over time
    • Global vs. Specific
    •    - applies across varied situations vs. only valid in this situation
  43. Negative Event: Poor Grade
    • two explanations 
    • 1. Optimistic Explanation (External, Unstable, Specific) - professor had bad day
    • 2. Pessimistic Explanation (Internal, Stable, Global) - Im stupid
  44. Social Psychology
    the study of how actual presence of others influences an individual's behavior, thoughts, or feelings.
  45. Sociobiology
    The study of the genetic basis of social behavior
  46. Social Psychologists Study
    • 1. Attribution: 
    •    - Inferences about the causes of behavior
    • 2. Attitudes: 
    •    - Our evaluation about people, places &              things
    •    - How they are formed
    •    - How they can be changed 
    •    - Development of Prejudice
    • 3. Social Influence & Group behavior: 
    •    - How presence of others influences our              behavior
  47. Norms
    rules (formal or informal) of expected & appropriate behavior in a situation
  48. Conformity
    Adoption of attitudes & behavior shared by a group
  49. Sherif (1936)
    • First Conformity Experiment 
    • 1. Individuals report size of movement
    • 2. Group of 3 make joint decision 
    • 3. Individuals reports a perceived effect more consistent with group rather than original report
  50. Asch (1951)
    • Conformity in a non-ambiguous situation
    • 3 stooges and 1 subdject asked to judge line length
    • In first 2 trials, stooges and subject give correct response
    • Trail 3 stooges give wrong one, so do 35% of subjects
  51. Conformity in our class
    person walks in late and Prof. tells class to say wrong answer and the person who comes in late also says wrong answer
  52. changes when one subject rather than two in conformity
    • when outnumbered 8-1 subject answers with group ~30% of time 
    • when outnumbered 7-2, it drops to ~10%
  53. *Milgram Experiment (1963)
    • "punishment on learning" 
    • long video on it
    • subject to give shocks on person if they get wrong answer
  54. Percentages of people that gave shocks in Milgram Experiment
    • Slight, Mod., Strong and Very Strong - 100%
    • Intense (pounding on wall) - 100%
    • Extreme intense (pounding on wall) - 90%
    • Danger severe shock - 75%
    • 450 volts (learner no longer responding) - 65%
    • teacher told to force learners hand on shock plate with max shock - 30%
  55. Can the Milgram Experiment be replicated?
    • Yes, we watched a video of it
    • 2/3 of people would give max shock according to video
  56. Milgram Experiment with "police caller"
    • watched video on it
    • man on phone makes McDonalds employes strip search other employee 
    • they listened
  57. Dr. Freidenberg presentation
    • part of UA counseling center
    • <1& of students drink daily, ppl think its 38%
    •    - this is b/c of stereotypes
    • 1/4 of UA students don't drink
    • stereotype that ppl from NJ are bad drivers

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