bio chpt 9

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lcunrod7
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247907
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bio chpt 9
Updated:
2013-11-19 20:14:28
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contaction
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  1. what contraction tension rises, until muscle length changes, then remains constant
    isotonic contraction
  2. what contraction involves lifting objects, walking and running
    isotonic contraction
  3. what contraction has muscle tension oversomes load and muscle shortens
    concentric contraction
  4. what contraction has speed of contraction inversely related to lod
    concentric contraction
  5. what contraction when load is more than peak tension produced, muscle lengthens
    eccentric contraction
  6. what contraction rate of elongation varies with difference in load/tension
    eccentric contraction
  7. what contraction muscle length does not change and tension never exceeds load
    isometric contaction
  8. what contraction has contracting muscle bulges but not as much as during isotonic contraction
    isometric contraction
  9. what contraction is postural muscle contraction
    isometric contraction
  10. what are the three sources of ATP in muscles
    glycolysis, aerobic metabolism, and creatine phosphate
  11. what source of ATP in the muscles occurs in sarcoplasm
    glycolysis
  12. what source of ATP in the muscles produces 2 ATP and 2 pruvate molecules for each glucose
    glycolysis
  13. what source of ATP in the muscles does not require oxygen
    glycolysis
  14. what source of ATP in the muscles provides 95% of ATP demands of resting muscle cell
    aerobic metabolism
  15. what source of ATP in the muscles occurs in mitochondria
    aerobic metabolism
  16. what source of ATP in the muscles produces 17 ATP for each pyruvate
    aerobic metabolism
  17. what source of ATP in the muscles has creatine assembled from amino acids
    creatine phosphate
  18. what source of ATP in the muscles facilitates regeneration of ATP
    creatine phosphate
  19. what are the few high-energy molecules stored
    atp and cp
  20. what is most energy stored as
    glycogen
  21. what ATP demand and production at different activity levels for ATP are low
    at rest
  22. what ATP demand and production at different activity levels surplus ATP produced by mitochondria , used to build up CP and glycogen reserves
    at rest
  23. what ATP demand and production at different activity levels demand for ATP increase
    at moderate activity levels
  24. what ATP demand and production at different activity levels ATP production by mitochondria meets demand
    at moderate activity levels
  25. what ATP demand and production at different activity levels mitochondria can provide alot of ATP demand
    at peak activity levels
  26. what ATP demand and production at different activity levels glycolysis provides most ATP, excessive pyruvate convert to lactic acid
    at peak activity levels
  27. what happens when a muscle can no longer perform at the required activity level
    fatigue
  28. what is a decline in pH is a major factor
    fatigue
  29. what happens when glycolysis quickly produces ATP, lower ph due to lactic acid buildup
    Under conditions of insufficient oxygen
  30. what happens when faster ATP production than aerobic metabolism and less efficient than aerobic metabolism
    Under conditions of insufficient oxygen
  31. what happens when the body temperature is elevated
    Under conditions of insufficient oxygen
  32. what happens during recovery period, intracellular conditions return to normal
    under conditions of available oxygen
  33. what happens when ATP production primarily through aerobic metabolism, more effiecient than glycolysis and heat production
    under conditions of available oxygen
  34. what happens when lactate convert back to pyruvate, pyruvate can be used to generate ATP by mitochondria or used to air synthesis of glucose and glycogen reserves
    • under conditions of available oxygen
  35. what during peak activity produces by muscle fibers diffuses into blood
    lactate cycling
  36. what in lactate cycle is glucose released into blood by liver and returns to muscle cells
    cori cycle
  37. what during recovery period liver continues converting this to glucose and returning to cells via blood
    lactate cycle
  38. what during the recovery period glucose is absorbed by skeletal muscle fibers and replenishes glycogen reserves
    lactate cycle
  39. what during the recovery period from prodcuing ATP in muscle cells and liver body oxygen demand is high
    lactate cycle
  40. what are the three major muscle fibers
    fast fibers, slow fibers and intermediate fibers
  41. what skeletal muscle fiber reaches peak tension in <0.01 seconds and is large in diameter
    fast fiber
  42. what skeletal muscle fiber have densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves, and few mitochondria
    fast fibers
  43. what skeletal muscle fiber are powerful, and fatigue rapidly since most atp produced anerobically
    fast fibers
  44. what skeletal muscle fiber is half the diameter of fast fibers and takes 3x as long to contract compared to fast fibers
    slow fibers
  45. what skeletal muscle fiber can maintain longer sustained contractions and primarily use aerobic metabolism for ATP production
    slow fibers
  46. what skeletal muscle fiber are dark red and an example is the gastroneumius muscle
    slow fibers
  47. what skeletal muscle fiber is in the eye
    fast fibers
  48. what skeletal muscle fiber resemble fast fibers
    intermediate fibers
  49. what skeletal muscle fiber contain little myoglobin, are relatively pale, and more capillaries and more fatigue resistant
    intermediate fibers
  50. what are the variations of skeletal muscle type
    according to muscle function, genetics, and physical training

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