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What is the third stage of skill acquisition? and explain it
- Autonomous stage
- When a learner can perform the skill without much thought they are said to be at the autonomous stage. They are then able to concentrate more on other tasks such as movements of the opponent and offensive strategies.
What is the second stage of skill acquisition? and explain it
- the associative stage (also called the practice stage)
- This is where the performer refines the skill through practice. The large and frequent mistakes of the cognitive stage are not as frequent.
What is the first stage of skill acquisition? and explain it
- cognitive stage
- This is where the players form a clear idea of what is required to perform the skill. Coaches often assume that all players understand the skill, but this may not always be the case.
Define sports administration
The organisation of sport in terms of the event planning and marketing, budgeting and organisation of personnel, to ensure the smooth running of an event or game.
List some responsibilities of the sport administrator
- employing and managing staff, and delegating staff responsibilities
- event or game management
- financial planning
- managing legal aspects
- marketing and promotion
- facility management
- lobbying for funding
- risk management
- dealing with external and internal stakeholders.
Common structures and formats that are used in event management include:
- knock out
- round robin and pools
- carnival of events
- handicapping and seeding
- tabloid events
Seeded knockout draws?
- This format consists of a number of players or teams with players often 'seeded', meaning they are ranked on their ability. In a knock out, the two top seeded (best players) are placed on opposite ends of the draw so they can't meet until the final (provided they don't lose before hand)
- There are no second chances in this type of format. If you lose, you are out of the tournament or event.
- This format needs to be played with four or more competitors or teams. Each competitor or team plays all other teams, irrespective of the results.
- Everyone plays the same number of games with the winner being the person or team with the most wins or points after all rounds are complete.
Promotional activities include:
- choice of venue
- sponsorship deals
- television and radio commercials
- other advertising (e.g posters, billboards, newspaper advertisement)
- athlete appearances
- spectator entrance fees
- event merchandise (e.g. T-shirts, caps, autographed posters etc.)
Continuous, serial and discrete skills
- A continuous skills is one where the movement is repeated over and over. There is no clear beginning and end
- A discrete skill is one which has a definite beginning and end point.
- A serial skill is one which combines several continuous and/or discrete skills for one movement
Fine and gross movement skills
- A fine movement skill is when you use very small muscle groups to do an activity.
- A gross movement skill is using large muscle groups.
Open and closed movement skills
- Open-where the player has no direct control of the movement
- Closed- A skill where performer has direct control, they chose when and how a movement is formed e.g. dancing
Self-paced and externally paced
- Self paced- performer decides at what speed and when and how to do the skill e.g. golf drive
- Externally paced- Is a skill where one is in direct control of the speed at which a movement is performed. e.g. dodging a dodgeball
Locomotor and non-locomotor
- Locomotor- moving from one place to another place e.g. running in soccer
- Non-locomotor- stationary movements e.g. dart throwing, spinning, skipping on the spot
What does massed practice involve?
Massed practice involves the skill being taught in one long continuous session with minimal rest periods. (e.g. dancing)
What does distributed practice allow?
Distributed practice allows the athlete to practise the skill with larger rest intervals and even alternate activities occurring in between the practice sessions. (e.g. netball)
What is mental practice?
Mental practice involves imagining performing a task as opposed to actually physically performing it. Practice leads to improvement, but the advantage of mental rehearsal is that you actually complete 'perfect practice' which can lead to better results than when completing a physical practice full of mistakes.
Internal feedback comes from our own feelings about a performance
External feedback comes from outside sources, such as coaches, team-mates or even crowd applause.
- Knowledge of results
- Feedback given regarding the result of our performance
- Knowledge of performance
- Feedback that gives greater information regarding our actual technique.
How to avoid STIs
- correctly using a condom during vaginal or anal sex
- abstaining from sexual intercourse
- having sex only with a single partner in a monogamous relationship where both partners have been tested for STIs and are unaffected
What can STIs do?
Cause pain, infertility, cancers and death.
Name some STIs
gonorrhea, aids, genital warts, herpes, chlamydia, syphilis
Name some illicit drugs and what they do
- Cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, GHB and LSD.
- Users take these substances to change their sensory experiences.
- short-term effects: nausea, sweating, jaw-clenching, teeth-grinding, anxiety, loss of appetite, hallucinations, confusion, seizure, coma, and in extreme cases, death.
polydrug use is when two or more drugs are used together. Polydrug use can multiply the effect of each drug, add to the adverse reactions, and the combination may produce serious health effects such as an overdose.
What does BAC stand for?
Blood alcohol concentration
Harms associated with drug use at a party
- Emotional harms
- -relationships at risk
- -emotional trauma/distress
- Physical harms
- -could end up harming oneself or others.
- Sexual harms
- -end up having unprotected sex and get pregnant
What's a gross income?
Amount of money earnt before tax is taken out.
Net income is?
the amount of money actually paid by the employer after tax has been taken out.
What is direct discrimination?
it occurs when someone is treated unfairly because of such qualities as their gender, age or race.
what is indirect discrimination?
it occurs when a rule or policy that is supposed to be the same for everyone has a different or unequal effect on a specific group of people.
RTA stands for
Roads Traffic Authority
List some human factors in road accidents
- Carrying passengers
- inexperience driving
List some vehicle factors
- mechanical problems of the car
- unsafe tire
- could have been modified
List some road environment factors
- rural roads with higher speed limits, greater travelling distances and a lack of alternative transport
- wet grounds
- busy intersection