A&P II Final

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A&P II Final
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A&P Final
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  1. Primary functions of respiratory system
    • -Gas Exchange
    • -Moving air to surfaces where gas exchange happens
    • -Protection of respiratory surfaces
    • -Communication - vocal folds
    • -Olfactory sense
  2. Lower Respiratory System
    • -Larynx
    • -Trachea - c-shaped cartilage, back has elastic connective tissue in case swallow something too big
    • -Primary bronchi
    • -Secondary Bronchi
    • -Tertiary Bronchi
    • -Terminal Bronchioles
    • -Respiratory Bronchioles
    • -Alveoli
  3. Bronchi - components
    • -Primary = c-shaped cartilage
    • -Secondary = mostly cartilage, some smooth muscle
    • -Tertiary = 50/50 cartilage and smooth muscle
    • -Terminal to respiratory = smooth musc;e
  4. Arteriole Blood Flow
    Vasomotion
  5. Bronchiole
    • -Bronchiodilation
    • -Bronchioconstriction

     - asthma = bronchioconstriction in presence of allergen
  6. Filtration Mechanisms of Respiratory System
    • - Epithelial Cells line resp system - all epithelial cells have cilia
    • - Nose Hairs
    • - Goblet Cells (mucous)
    • - Mucous producing glands
  7. Alveoli
    • - GAS EXCHANGE
    • - Simple squamos epithelial cells
    • - Type I cells = normal lining cells, majority
    • - Type II cells = surfactant
    •      - Thicker, lines inside of alveoli
    •      - Creates surface tension = inflate w/o popping
    •      - Keep alveoli partially inflated, no surfactant = have to re-inflate alveoli with every breath
  8. Perinchyma
    • - Everything outside of alveoli
    • - Elastic Fibers - mesh network of elastin
    • - Tightly holds capillary network to alveoli
    •      - Decr. diffusable distance = incr. diffusable      rate
  9. Boyle's Law
    • - Pressure and volume inversely related
    • - P=1/V
    • - Relates to ventilation
  10. Ventilation - inhalation
    • 1. Diaphragm contracts
    • 2. Pulls down pleural membrane that surrounds lungs
    • 3. This increases volume in thoracic cavity which decreases pressure (we only have ability to change volume)
    • 4. Air moves from area of high pressure (outside) to low pressure (lungs)

    • -Active Process
    • - Diaphragm does 75% of breathing when relaxing/not sick, use accessory muscles in exercise or forcible inhalation
  11. Ventilation - exhalation
    • - Passive process
    • - Doesn't expend energy 
    • relax diaphragm
    • - Compliance - lungs deflate themselves without work, elastic fibers retract from being stretched and force air out


    • 1. Diaphragm relaxes
    • 2. Volume in lungs/thoracic cavity decreases
    • 3. Pressure in cavity increases
    • 4. Air moves out
  12. Tidal Volume
    Volume taken in in a typical breath
  13. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
    • -Ability to fill the most amount of space in your lungs
    • -where tidal volume ends
  14. Expiratory Reserve Volume
    - Volume you are able to exhale
  15. Residual Volume
    • - Volume still in lungs after maximum exhalation
    • - Can't have 0 L in lungs - alveoli would collapse, gas exchange wouldn't occur
    • - Decr. over time and age
  16. Capacity
    multiple volumes
  17. Functional Capacity
    • - Amount of volume you have the ability to change yourself
    • - IRV + TV + ERV
  18. Total Lung Capacity
    FC + RV
  19. Respiratory Rate
    # Breaths / min
  20. Minute Ventilation
    •   (dot over V)
    • - volume of air in/out per minute
    • - RR x TV
  21. Minute Alveolar Ventilation
    • -  (dot over V)
    • - How much air actually reaches exchange surface
    • - (TV - Dead Space) x RR = 
  22. Anatomical Dead Space
    - Air stuck in tubes of resp. system that never reaches exchange surface - about 150 mL
  23.  (dot over V)
    - oxygen usage of mitochondria per minute

    - max = maximal oxygen consumption per minute or aerobic capacity
  24. Dalton's Law
    - total pressure exerted by a mixture of gas = the sum of the partial pressures of each gas
  25. Partial Pressure of Gases in Air
    - NEVER CHANGES - amount of gas changes due to less total pressure, but percent never changes

    • - Nitrogen = 78.6%
    • - Oxygen = 20.9%
    • - Water = 0.5%
    • - Carbon Dioxide = 0.04%
  26. Atmospheric Pressure
    • - Pressure of gases
    • - Changes with elevation
    • - Sea level is 760 mmHg
    • - Higher elevation = less pressure
  27. Henry's Law
    • - When a gas comes in contact with a liquid, it will dissolve in that liquid equivalent to its partial pressure
    • - Higher pp = faster and more likely will dissolve in liquid
  28. Respiration based on the pressure of gases
    • Inspired air:
    • -high pressure of oxygen (140) and low pressure of carbon dioxide (0.3) in atmospheric air

    • Alveoli:
    • - PaO2 lower than atmospheric air, can go into alveoli (104)
    • - PaCO2 much higher than in atmospheric air - exceedingly easy to get rid of CO2 in exhalation (40)

    • Arteries:
    • - Henry's Law
    • - O2 can dissolve into blood from alveoli b/c high partial pressure (100)
    • - CO2 dissolves in blood too at smaller amount (40)

    • Blood leaving lungs:
    • - PtO2 decreases as diffused out of blood (40) so muscles can use O2
    • - PtCO2 increases as diffused into blood (45) b/c muscles produce CO2

    • Blood returning to lungs:
    • - PvO2 low - allows for O2 to dissolve into blood at alveoli
    • - high PvCO2 - allows for CO2 to be transferred out at alveoli
    • - Difference in oxygen concentration between arteries and veins
    • - Needs of tissues incr., diff gets larger
    • - No needs of tissues, diff is smaller
  29. Oxygen Transport
    • - 2% dissolved in plasma
    • - 98% bound to Hb - oxyhemoglobin HbO2
    • - O2 saturation = all 4 sites on Hb full of O2 - usually 98% of Hb have this
  30. Carbon Dioxide Transportation
    23% bound to Hb as carbaminohemoglobin,. 7% dissolved in blood

    70% Travels as BICARBONATE not carbonic acid

    • - Tissues (mitochondria) = CO2 + H2O
    • - Cytoplasm = H2CO3
    • - Blood = (H+Hb) + (NaHCO3) -  Na moves out of RBC and Cl moves in
    • - Lungs (blood) = H + HCO3 (H and Na unbind)
    • - Blood into alveoli = H2CO3
    • - Alveoli = CO2 +H2O  --> EXHALE
  31. Oxygen Saturation Curve
    • - O2 Saturation vs PO2
    • - Normal = 98%

    • - Decr. curve - decr. O2 saturation = incr. O2 unloading
    • Decr. PO2 
    • 1. Altitude
    • 2. Decr. blood pH (exercise)
    • 3. Incr. blood temp (exercise)

    • Incr curve = incr. O2 saturation, decr. O2 unloading
    • 1. Incr. pH
    • 2. Decr. temp
    • 3. Incr. PO2
  32. Respiratory Systems in Brain
    • Medulla:
    • -Dorsal Resp Group = inhalation
    • - Ventral Resp Group = exhalation

    • Pons:
    • - Apneustic Center = regulates depth of breathing, inhibited by pneumotaxic center
    • - Pneumotaxic Center = rate of breathing
  33. Respiration - Rest vs. Exercise
    • - Rest = driven by O2 consumption
    • - Exercise = driven by waste product removal, Hb can only carry 1 waste product (CO2, H) as opposed to 4 O2, can't carry O2 and waste product at same time
  34. Major Functions of Digestive System
    • 1. Ingestion - take food in
    • 2. Mechanical Processing - mushing food into lump
    • 3. Digestion - chemical process of breakdown
    • 4. Secretion - release of water, acid, enzymes and buffers into food stuff
    • 5. Absorption - movement of necessary chemical components into body
    • 6. Excretion - removal of non-digestible items
  35. Segmentation
    • Mechanical Process
    • Stomach
    • Cycles of waving contactions in stomach - to churn food
  36. Peristalsis
    • Mechanical Process
    • Small Intestine
    • Circular wave-like contractions to move food through tube
  37. Mass Movement
    • Mechanical Process
    • Large Intestine
    • Large contractions (once or twice a day) to completely eliminate a mass
  38. Mouth and oral cavity
    • Mechanical Processing
    • Salivary Amylase - initial breakdown of starch
    • Deglutition - swallowing
  39. Stomach
    • Mechanical Processing
    • -Segmentation

    • Chemical Processing
    • - NS releases gastric juice with presence of food or thought of food = decreases pH of stomach
    • - Decr. pH of stomach = release of gastrin from ep. cells in stomach lining
    • - Gastrin causes release of pepsinogens (protein digestive enzymes), HCl, mucous, and Rennin (infants for milk digestion)

    • Absorption
    • -Water if its following ions (Na, Mg,K), electrolytes, alcohol, glucose
  40. Chyme
    What's left after segmentation and release of gastric juice and enzymes in stomach
  41. Pyloric Sphincter
    • Sphincter at intestine-end of stomach
    • Releases chyme at about 1-2 tbsp per 5 min
    • 200-300 calories takes about 1 hr to empty
  42. Duodenum
    • Secretion and Mechanical processing
    • 2 Ducts drain into it and mix with chyme

    • Common bile duct:
    • - From liver and gallbladder
    • - Releases bile which emulsifies fat

    • Pancreatic Duct:
    • - Secretes pancreatic juice which contains:
    • - breakdown of carbs - pancreatic amylase
    • - breakdown of proteins - carboxypeptidease, trypsin, chymotrypsin
    • - breakdown of fat into FFA - lipase 
    • - breakdown of nucleic acids - nucleases
  43. Small intestine
    • -Secretion - enzymes released from wall of intestine 
    • - Peristalsis
    • - Absorption

    Emptying = 4-6 hrs?
  44. Jejunum - Ileum
    • Absorption of:
    • nucleic acids
    • Amino acids
    • Glucose
    • FFA's
  45. Pancreas
    Releases pancreatic juice and insulin

    • insulin:
    • uptake of glucose into muscle/liver
  46. Large Intestine
    Mass Movement

    • No digestive enzymes
    • Resident Bacteria - good bacteria, helps pass food and determine how much water to absorb
    • Absorption = Vitamin K and B, Water
    • Gets rid of undigestible things - fiber, bacteria = feces
  47. Functions of Urinary System
    • 1. Remove excess ions/metabolic waste
    • 2. Regulate blood volume
    • 3. Produce enzyme Renin
    • -Lead component of renin-angiotensin system - major hormonal system to regulate blood pressure, relies of kidney
    • 4. Production of EPO (producing RBC's)
    • 5. Convert vitamin D to an active form (important in formation of RBC's)
  48. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
    • - Responsible for release of EPO (RBC formation) and Renin (change BP)
    • - Bundle of epithelial cells located in DCT that has ability to chem. communicate to control hormones and enzymes released
    • - communicates with Vasa Recta - capillaries that run parallel to Loop of Henle (RBC production)
    • - Macula Densa (ep cells) determine blood volume based on sense of chemicals and RBC's running through them and coordinate with Juxtaglomerular cells - sm muscle fibers in wall of afferent arteriole
    • - Hormone release = slow acting
  49. Juxtamedullary Nephron
    • 15%
    • Long loop of henle
    • long capillaries that parallel loop of henle - vasa recta
  50. Cortical Nephrons
    • 85%
    • Located in Renal Cortex
    • Short loop of henle
  51. Urine Formation
    • 1. Filtration - oncotic and hydrostatic pressure
    • 2. Reabsorption - movement of solutes out of renal tubes into peritubular fluid then peritubular capilaries
    • 3. Secretion - opp of reabsorption, movement out of peritubular capillaries into peritubular fluid then renal tubes
  52. Filtration
    • - Occurs only in glomerular capsule
    • - Hydrostatic force inside is high, pushes water and waste products out
    • - Hydrostatic/Oncotic Pressure
  53. Reabsorption
    • - Occurs in PCT
    • - Diffusion (high to low conc.) and carrier mediated transport
    • - 99% of what goes in is reabsorbed into peritubular fluid
    • - waste products remain in PCT
    • - Selective reabsorption = DCT - water and some ions
  54. Secretion
    • - Occurs in DCT
    • - Selective secretion = PCT, ions in excess in peritubular capillaries
    • - Diffusion (high to low conc.) and carrier mediated transport
  55. Diffusion
    • high concentration to low concentration
    • concentration gradient
  56. Carrier Mediated Transport
    • - Facilitated diffusion - using conc. gradient
    • - Active Transport - against conc. gradient using energy 
    • - Cotransport - attaching to another molecule to diffuse w/ conc. gradient
    • - Countertransport - 2 substances transport in opp directions (against conc. gradient and with conc. gradient)
  57. GFR
    • - Glomerular Filtration Rate
    • - How much creatinine is cleared
    • - Typical rate = 125 mL/min
    • - Filtration rate depends on BP and Blood volume
    • - kidney failure = can't control BP or Blood volume - leads to cardiovascular problems
  58. Autoregulation of GFR
    • Local Control
    • - Change diameter of afferent arteriole
    • - Decreased GFR - afferent arteriole dilate and efferent constricts - increases volume and hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus - increases GFR
  59. Hormonal Regulation of GFR
    • Hormones:
    • - Renin
    • - Natriuretic Peptide
    • - Aldosterone
    • - ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
  60. Renin-Angiotensin System
    • - Low GFR (decr plama, CO, BV, BP, Na+)
    • - Renin released from kidney
    • - Angiotensin converted to Angiotensin I
    • - Angiotensin I converted to Angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme
    • - Angiotensin II incr BV, induces vasoconstriction, incr mean arteriole pressur, incr. retain Na, activation of adrenal gland
    • - Adrenal gland releases Aldosterone
    • - Aldosterone tells PCT and DCT to retain Na which retains water 
    • - also stimulates pituitary gland which releases ADH - stimulates thirst
  61. Natriuretic Peptide
    • - High GFR
    • - Release/remove Na - water follows Na
    • - Decr plasma, BV, BP
  62. Nervous System Control of GFR
    • - Sympathetic Nervous system
    • - Vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles when need to decr GFR
  63. Counter Current Multiplication
    • - Occurs in Loop of Henle
    • - Pushes sodium out based on concentration gradient
    • - Thin descending tube - water is removed water b/c of sodium outside of loop
    • - Thin ascending loop - sodium pumped out because higher conc of sodium inside b/c water was removed
    • - Sodium pulled out based on needs of system i.e. filtration rate, more pulled out if need more water
    • - If need less water, sodium stays in system and water urinated out
  64. Functions of Lymphatic System
    • 1. Production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes
    • 2. Maintenance of lymphatic tissues (organs)
    • 3. Maintenance of lymphatic vessels
  65. Lymph
    Movement of Lymph
    Lymph = water with waste products, bacteria, etc has entered lymphatic capillary from interstitial fluid

    • Movement:
    • 1. Resp. system pump
    • 2. Muscular system pump
    • 3. One-way valves
  66. Lymphatic Ducts
    • 1. R Lymphatic Duct
    • - Lymph from right side of body above diaphragm
    • - Connects to right subclavian vein

    • 2. Thoracic Duct
    • - Lymph from lower half of body and whole left side
    • - Connects to junction of internal/external left jugular vein
  67. Types of Lymphocytes
    • T-Cell
    • -Helper, memory, cytotoxic, suppressor

    • B-Cell
    • -Clone, memory, plasma

    • NK Cell
    • -Seeks out self cells no longer acting as self-cells
  68. Lymph node
    • -Lymphatic organ
    • -Job is to purify lymph
    • -In entire lymphatic vessel system but most concentrated in areas to protect major internal organs
    • -Specific defenses
  69. Interferon
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - interfere with plot of FI
    • - FI takes over cell to use mitochondria, etc.
    • - Cell sends chemical image of FI's glycocalyx
    • - Decr. ability of FI to multiply
  70. Fever
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - Abnormally high body temp
    • - FI causes WBC's to release pyrogen - tells hypothalamus to reset homeostatic temp

    • Why:
    • - Q10 effect: speed up chem rxn
    • - Activates enzymes - speed up chemical rxn
  71. Inflammation
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - redness, swelling, heat, pain
    • - acute - fix present tissue trauma
    • - chronic - chemicals continue to be released
    • - Basophils:
    • release histamine & kinins (vasodilation), heparine (clot prevention), chemotaxis (summon other phagocytes)
    • - Incr. blood flow
    • - capillaries become more permeable
  72. Complement
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - Inactive group of 20 plasma proteins
    • - Becomes active when glycocalyx of FI covered in antibodies
    • - pokes holes in membrane or makes it sticky for phagocyte to consume easier
    • - More active with inflammation
  73. NK Cells
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - Migratory
    • - identify incorrect glycocalyx
    • - prevent cancerous cells
    • - recognize glycocalyx, golgi moves to face bad cell, release perforin, pokes holes in membrane of target cell
  74. Phagocytes
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - any cell whose job is to confront and eat FI's
    • - Fixed or migratory 
    • - Neutrophils, eosinophils
  75. Physical Barriers
    • - Non-specific defense
    • - Integumentary system
    • - Mucous membranes
    • - Nasal hairs, cilia, gastric juices, saliva, tears
  76. Cell Mediated Immunity
    - Specific defense

    • - Antigen first exposure
    • - Macrophage engulfs antigen - antigen presenting cell
    • - helper T cell - analyze antigen
    • - cytotoxic T cell - phagocyte, kill antigen
    • - memory T cell - memorize antigen
    • - Suppressor T cell - eliminate cytotoxic T cell when antigen killed off
  77. Antibody Formation
    • - Protein = Transcription and Translation
    • - Match gylcocalyx of FI
  78. Antibody mediated defense
    -Specific Defense

    • - Antigen first exposure
    • - Macrophage engulfs antigen - antigen presenting cell
    • - helper T cell - analyzes antigen, too complex- calls in B cell
    • - Clone of B cell made
    • - Memory B cell made - memorize antigen
    • -Plasma B cel - also memorize antigen, mass produce and secrete antibodies, peak antibodies 10-12 days
  79. Hematocrit
    • - Percentage of formed elements in blood
    • - ideal 45%
  80. Major characteristics of RBC's
    • - Most abundant formed element ~99.9%
    • - Life span = 120 days
    • - 1% of RBC's in circulation replaced each day
    • - Each RBC = 280 million Hb
    • - Quaternary protein
    • - diameter slightly larger than capillary, incr rate of O2 and CO2 diffusion
    • - Can stack like dinner plates - incr SA to vol ratio
  81. Determinants for oxygen bound to Hb
    • 1. plasma oxygen level decreases - Hb releases O2
    • 2. CO2 high in tissues - Hb releases O2
    • 3. Plasma oxygen level increases - Hb absorb O2

    • - Can carry 4 O2 but only 1 of either CO2 or H+ if not carrying O2
    • - High affinity for O2
  82. White blood cells
    • Neutrophil:
    • - 50-70% 
    • -First responders, release chemicals to attract other phagocytes
    • - Release defensis to kill bacteria

    • Eosinophil:
    • -2-4%
    • - Attack anything covered in antibodies, allergic rxn

    • Basophil:
    • - Diapedisis - goes through layers of blood vessels to get into tissue for repair
    • - release histamine and heparine

    • Monocyte:
    • - 2-8%
    • - Macrophage, eat biggest foreign invaders

    • Lymphocyte:
    • - 20-30%
    • - High # = fighting off something
    • - T, B, NK cells
  83. Cardiac Cycle
    1 heart beat

    • 1. Passive Filling
    • 2. Atrial Contraction
    • 3. Isovolumic Contraction
    • 3. Ejection
    • 4. Isovolumic Relaxation

    • Pic: 2,3,4
  84. Blood Flow
    • 1. Blood from toes
    • 2. Into vena cava, connects to superior and inferor of right atria
    • 3. Into tricuspid valve then right ventricle
    • 4. Up through pulmonic semilunar valve
    • 5. INto pulmonary artery, then lungs
    • 6. Lungs to pulmonary veins then left atria
    • 7. Into bicuspid valve then left ventricle
    • 8. Aortic semilunar valve
    • 9. Aorta
    • 10. Body - vena cava, repeat
  85. Passive Filling (left side)
    • - Heart is trying to fill atria
    • - Blood can't stay in atria b/c of hole and some will go into ventricle
    • - No valve between pulmonary veins and atria
    • - Aortic SL valve is closed, AV valve (mitral) is open 
    • - Atria will slowly fill until it can't hold anymore blood
  86. Atrial Contraction
    • - Ejection of blood to ventricle
    • - After ejection, AV valve will close - pin blood in ventricle
    • - SL valve (aortic) is still closed
  87. Isovolumic Contraction
    • - Volume in ventricle will not change during contraction
    • - AV and SL valves closed
    • - Muscle in ventricle will start to contract (not fully contract) - increases pressure in ventricle
    • - Blood in ventricle wants to go out of SL valve
  88. Ejection
    • - AV valve is still closed
    • - Need to push blood from ventricle to aorta through SL valve
    • - Pressure inside ventricle has to be greater than inside aorta to open SL valve
    • - When that occurs blood is ejected into aorta
    • - Happens because pressure in ventricle is greater during contraction after aorta pushes blood to body
  89. Isovolumic Relaxation
    • - After ejection, pressure in aorta much higher so SL valve closes but leaves some fluid in ventricle
    • - AV valve is still closed 
    • - Pressure in atria is higher than in ventricle b/c atria is always filling and ventricle just contracted
    • - Pressure difference causes AV valve to open
    • - Atrial begins passively filling ventricle while heart still tries to fill atria
  90. Contractility
    • - Strength of contraction
    • - Related to quantity of fluid thats moving i.e. volume
    • - If only small amount of fluid comes out, heart assumes needs to contract harder to benefit the rest of body
  91. Preload
    • - Will alter contractility
    • - What volume is being put into ventricle before it contracts
    • - passive filling, atrial contraction
  92. Heart Rate
    Beats per minute

    (cardiac cycles per minute)
  93. Stroke Volume
    Volume ejected per beat (mL)

    (equivalent to venous return)
  94. Cardiac Output
    • - Volume ejected per minute (L)
    • - Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
    • - CO = SV x HR
  95. End Diastolic Volume
    - Volume in ventricle at end of rest just before contraction

    - Diastole = rest (not contracting)

    - ESV + SV = EDV
  96. End Systolic Volume
    - Volume in ventricle at end of contraction

    - Systole = contract
  97. Afterload
    • - Resistance to ventricular emptying
    • - i.e. overcome resistance in aorta
    • - decr afterload = easier to eject
  98. Ejection Fraction
    • - Percentage of volume ejected per beat
    • - Typically 60%
  99. What is ejection fraction and cardiac output when: 

    ESV = 100
    EDV = 400
    HR = 60 bpm
    SV = 400-100 = 300 mL

    CO = SV x HR = (0.3 L)(60 BPM) = 18 L/min

    EF = 300/400 = 75%
  100. At rest - Longer filling time
    • - Incr. EDV
    • - If you have low resting HR (which means longer filling time), will eventually decr. EF because tissues don't need as much blood as is being pumped out
  101. Needs of Tissues increase
    • - HR increases up to 160 (changes first)
    • - SV slightly increases
    • - CO increases
    • - Preload increases b/c venous return is faster = more prefilling even though HR increases
    • - Afterload decreases b/c Aorta stretches and recoils - aorta moves blood quickly out of it b/c stretched further
    • - EF increases (90% at exercise)
  102. Frank-Starling Mechanism
    • - Used to increase Ejection Fraction when HR goes up 
    • - i.e. preload
    • - Length-Tension Relationship = stretch muscle to optimal length to get strongest contraction
    • - can use up to HR of about 160 before filling time is compromised - after that you can't prefill enought to get optimal contraction even though return flow is faster
  103. Moderate Exercise vs High intensity exercise
    moderate - SV incr

    High - SV stays the same or goes down
  104. Contractility
    • - Calcium induced calcium release
    • - Incr EF b/c contract harder
  105. Conduction System
    • - SA node sets HR, vagus nerve inhibits it
    • - Depolarizes surrounding atrial muscle - atria contracts
    • - Sends signal and depolarizes AV node which slows signal sets true HR
    • - Bundle of His receives stimulus
    • - Stimulates L+R Bundle Branches in ventricles
    • - Stimulates Purkinje Fiberst to contract
  106. Depolarization, Repolarization, Action potential
    • Receive threshold stimulus: 
    • -Depolarization = Na+ channels open, charges reverse
    • - Action Potential = chain rxn of Na+ channels opening and charges reversing
    • - Repolarization -reestablishing rest
  107. Resistance to Flow
    • - Vessel length - longer vessels = more resistance
    • - Vessel diameter  decr. diam = more resistance
    • - Viscosity - thicker blood = more resistance
    • - Turbulence - turbulent flow = more resistance (laminar flow = faster)
  108. Local Vasodilators
    • - Incr CO2, Decr O2
    • - Incr lactic acid
    • - Incr H+
    • - incflammatory chemicals
    • - Incr temp
  109. Local Vasoconstrictors
    - Blood clot (aggregation of platelets)
  110. Neural vasomotion
    Constriction = norepinephrine

    dilation = epinephrine, ACH, NO2
  111. Barroreceptors and chemoreceptors
    • - Pressure an chemical sensors
    • - Nervous system control of HR
  112. Spleen
    Storage of WBC, recycling of RBC's
  113. Thymus
    transform lymphocytes into T cells

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