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Define Vector
Quantity of magnitude and direction

Define Force
Push or pull exerted on a body

Define Mass
Quantity of molecular material

Define Volume
Amount of space occupied

Define Density
Mass/Volume (Mass per unit volume)

Define Weight
Force toward the Earth on mass (gravity)

Define Moment
Force applied a distance from a fulcrum

Define Work
Done when a force moves a body
Force x distance

Define Power
Work per unit time  Work/Time

Define Energy
Capacity to do work

Define Potential Energy
Energy of position or state

Define Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion

What happens to air density and temperature as altitude increases?
Both decrease

What atmospheric properties affect pressure?
Density  _{p
}Temperature  T
P = _{p}RT (R= gas constant)

What is static pressure?
Force that molecules of air exert on each other by their random movement

What is dynamic pressure?
Measurement of impact pressure of a large group of air molecules moving together

What is total pressure?
Dynamic + static

Define True altitude
Actual height above MSL

Define Pressure altitude
Height above standard datum plane (29.92)

Define Density altitude
Pressure altitude corrected for temperature

Define Indicated airspeed
Airspeed from ASI

Define Calibrated airspeed
IAS corrected for instrument error

Define Equivalent airspeed
CAS corrected for compressibility
significant approached speed of sound

Define True airspeed
Speed through an air mass

What is groundspeed?
TAS corrected for winds

What happens to TAS in a constant IAS climb?
Increases

Define Wingspan
Length, wingtip to wingtip

Define Chordline
Infinitely long line through leading & trailing edge of airfoil

Define Chord
Width of wing
Measure of the wing along the chordline, from leading edge to trailing edge

Define Tip chord
Width of wing at tip

Define Root chord
Width of wing at root

Define Average chord
Average of all chords

Define Wing area
Wingspan times average chord

Define Taper
Reduction in chord from root to tip

Define Sweep angle
Angle between 1/4 chord line and line parallel to the lateral axis

Define Aspect ratio
Wingspan/average chord

Define Wing loading
Weight/wing area

Define Angle of incidence
Angle between chordline and longitudinal axis

Define Dihedral angle
Upwards slope of wing viewed from headon

Define Pitch attitude
Angle between longitudinal axis and horizon

Define Flight path
Aircraft path through air

Define Relative wind
Airflow experienced by aircraft/airflow

Define Angle of attack
Angle between relative wind and chordline

Define Mean camber line
Line halfway between upper and lower surface of airfoil

Define Symmetric airfoil
Mean camber and chordline are equal

Define Aerodynamic center
Point on chordline where changes in aerodynamic forces take place

Define Spanwise/chordwise flow
Spanwise parallel to leading edge
Chordwise perpendicular to leading edge (produces lift)

What is the relationship of thrust and drag, lift and weight, in level, unaccelerated flight?
Thrust = drag; Lift = weight

What is the relationship between lift and weight, thrust and drag, during takeoff ground roll?
Weight > lift; Thrust > drag

What is equal, but opposite relative wind?
Flight path

What are the three airplane axis?
Longitudinal, vertical, lateral

What are the motions about the axis?
 Roll  Longitudinal
 Yaw  Vertical
 Pitch  Lateral




What is the center of gravity?
Point where weight is concentrated

What is the normal relationship between the aerodynamic center and the center of gravity?
CG is forward of aerodynamic center

What are the results of the CG being too far aft or too far forward?
 Too far aft  tail heavy
 Too far forward  nose heavy

What are the components of aerodynamic force?
Lift and drag

What is the relationship of lift and drag to the relative wind?
 Drag is parallel
 Lift is perpendicular

Changing which factor in the lift equation will affect lift the most?
V (velocity)
L = 1/2_{p}V^{2}C_{L}S

How can the pilot change lift?
Primarily with AOA and velocity
Also by changing camber with flaps

What is the relationship between velocity and angle of attack in level flight?
Inverse relationship; AOA increases as velocity decreases

What factor changes in maintaining level flight at 1000 ft versus 18000 ft?
TAS increases (decreased density requires increased velocity)

What is total drag?
Parasite + induced

What are the 3 types of parasite drag?
Form, Friction, Interference

Define Form drag
The difference between static pressure of the leading and trailing edges

Define Friction drag
Turbulent airflow in the boundary layer

Define Interference drag
Mixing airflows between aircraft components

What effect does lowering the gear have on drag?
Parasite drag increases

What happens to pitch as the gear is lowered?
Nose pitches down

Describe the effects on lift and drag causes by raising or lowering flaps
Lowering T/O flaps  more lift/little more drag
Lowering flaps from T/O to LDG  little more lift/ lot more drag
Raising from LDG to T/O  Lot less lift/ little less drag

What is induced drag?
Drag from lift

How does increased weight change induced drag?
Increases induced drag (airspeed constant)

At what velocities is induced drag greatest?
 Greatest  slower
 Least  faster

In level unaccelerated flight, what is the relationship between total drag and total thrust?
Equal

What is the relationship between total drag and velocity?
Drag decreases to a point, then increases

What is L/D_{MAX}
Lowest point on the total drag curve
the ratio of lift to drag is greatest

Contrast thrust and shaft horsepower
 Shaft  engine output
 Thrust  propeller output

What is propeller efficiency?
Ability to convert shaft HP to thrust HP

Is 100% propeller efficiency possible?
No, gearbox friction and propeller drag

What determines power available?
Power produced at a given PCL setting, velocity and density

Define Thrust required
Thrust needed to overcome drag (T_{R} = D_{T})
Thrust required = Total drag

Define Power required
Power needed to produce T_{R} (thrust required)

Define Excess thrust
T_{A} > T_{R} ; climb or accelerate
Thrust available > Thrust required

Define Excess power
P_{A} > P_{R} ; climb or accelerate
Power available > Power required

What is the relationship between velocity and, T_{R} and P_{R}?
T _{R} decreases to L/D _{MAX} _{then increases}
 _{}
 P_{R} decreases to airspeed below L/D_{MAX} then increases

What is the result of P_{A} being greater than P_{R}?
Acceleration or climb

What happens to power required as altitude increases?
Increases

What effect does a change in configuration have on T_{A} and T_{R}?
No effect on T_{A}_{}
Gear and/or flaps down requires increased T_{R}

What effect does a change in configuration have on P_{A} and P_{R}?
No effect change on P_{A}
Gear and/or flaps down requires increased P_{R}

What factors increase takeoff or landing roll?
More weight; Higher alt; Warm temp; Higher humidity; Less headwind; More tailwind

Changing which factor has the greatest effect on performance?
Weight

Define Max rate of climb
Most alt in least time

Define Max angle of climb
Most alt in least distance

Define Best glide speed
Airspeed that gives max poweroff range

Define Max range
Max distance for set amount of fuel

Define Max endurance
Max time airborne for set amount of fuel

What factors decrease glide range?
Dirty configuration; Unfeathered prop; Lower alt; More headwind; Less tailwind

What factor changes groundspeed, but has no effect on TAS?
Headwind or Tailwind

Where does max range for a propeller aircraft occur?
L/D_{MAX}

Where does max endurance occur?
Some airspeed less than L/D_{MAX}

What factors increase both max range and max endurance?
Less weight; Clean config; Higher alt; Colder temp

Where is the region of reverse command?
Left of max endurance on P_{R} chart

What is the region of reverse command?
The part of the P_{R} curve where a decrease in airspeed requires an increase in power

What is critical Mach?
Airspeed where first evidence of local supersonic flow occurs

Yaw resulting from propeller airflow past rudder
Slipstream swirl

Roll opposite propeller rotation
Propeller torque

Yaw resulting from asymmetric propeller thrust
Pfactor

Action to correct slipstream swirl
Right rudder

Correction for Pfactor
Opposite rudder

Action to correct for propeller torque
Opposite aileron

How many G's are required for a level 60 degree bank turn in a T6 (or any aircraft)?
+2.0G

What control inputs are necessary for a coordinated level turn?
Stick/Rudder in direction of turn, then neutral; Stick back; PCL forward

Define Slip
Insufficient rudder in direction of turn; Needle & ball on same side

Define Skid
Too much rudder in direction of turn; Needle & ball opposite sides

Why must back pressure be added in a turn?
To increase total lift

Why must power be increased during a turn?
Increased AOA, therefore increased induced drag, therefore increased power

What factors limit the max bank angle and min turning velocity?
Weight, Altitude, Load factor, Stall AOA, Engine performance, Wing loading

What two things determine turn rate and radius?
Velocity & angle of bank

Define Turn radius
Radius length of turn

Define Turn rate
Rate of heading change

Define Load factor
Load/weight

Define Limit load factor
Max load without damage

Define Ultimate load factor
Max load without failure (150^{o})

Define Maneuvering speed
Cornering velocity  max speed where abrupt inputs will not cause damage

Define Asymmetric G's
Aileron or rudder deflected while pulling G's

What are the T6 asymmetric load limits?
1.0 to 4.7

What happens to load factor as bank increases?
Increases

Define Static stability (positive & negative)
Initial tendency to move forward or away from original state
 Positive towards
 Negative away

Define Dynamic stability
Measurement of displacement over time after disturbance

Define Sideslip angle
Angle between longitudinal axis and flight path

Define PIO (Pilot Induced Oscillations)
Pilot and longitudinal stability correcting for oscillations simultaneously

Describe directional static stability
Stability of longitudinal axis around vertical axis

Contrast stability and maneuverability
More stable, less maneuverable
Less stable, more maneuverable
Inverse

Describe boundary layer separation
Point where airflow no longer adheres to wing

Why does boundary layer separation occur?
Decreasing kinetic energy; increasing adverse pressure gradient

What is a stall?
An increase in AOA results in a decrease in C_{L} (coef of lift)

Contrast airspeed and roll tendency between a poweron stall and a poweroff stall
 Power on: Lower speed, rolls left
 Power off: High speed, rolls right

What factors change stall airspeed?
Weight, altitude, load factor

How will the stall AOA change with an increase in weight?
Doesn't (AOA never changes)  Stall speed increase

How is the stall speed changed by a steeper bank angle?
Increases

What happens to stall speed when G's are increased?
Increases

In what order are the flight controls lost in a stall?

What is the function of leading edge slats?
Suppress boundary layer separation

Where does boundary layer separation move forward on the C_{L} curve?
Bend point before C_{L} MAX

Where does the stall occur on the C_{L }curve?
C_{L} MAX (stall region to right)

What is the T6 stall AOA?
18 units

What provides stall warning in the T6?
Stick shaker, AOA gauge

When is the stick shaker activated?
510 knots above stall speed

What two factors are necessary for a spin?
Stall and yaw

Contrast lift and drag between a stalled aircraft and a spinning aircraft
 Stalled: Equal lift & drag
 Spin: Asymmetric lift & drag

What is the cause of asymmetry?
Yaw

Describe an erect accelerated spin
Stick other than full aft

Why is a left spin different from a right spin?
Gyroscopic effect of prop

What is poststall gyration?
Aerodynamic forces resulting in movement about the 3 axis

What is the primary factor affecting poststall gyration intensity?
Airspeed

Describe asymmetric wing stall
Uneven lift & drag (yaw) on opposite wings causes autorotation

When the stick is full aft, what happens to the pitch of a spinning T6? What happens to the rotation rate?
 Pitch flattens
 Rotation rate slows

What is the primary difference between an inverted vs erect spin?
 Inverted: Negative G's
 Erect: Positive G's

What are the characteristics of a right spin?
Lower pitch (steeper), more oscillations, longer to stabilize, rotation rate increases

Which flight control provides the greatest antislip force?
Opposite rudder

What factors affect wingtip vortex strength?
Weight, speed, configuration

What generates wake turbulence?
Production of lift

Which direction do wingtip vortices rotate?
 Left: Clockwise
 Right: CounterClockwise

Describe the descent characteristics of wingtip vortices
 Sink 400500ft/min
 Max sink 800900ft/min
 Last ~2min

Which aircraft produce the strongest vortices?
Heavy, clean, slow

What are the hazards of wake turbulence?
 Induced roll, induced flow field (downward)
 Worst case: Loss of control

When do wingtip vortices begin?
At rotation

When do wingtip vortices stop?
Nosewheel down

What is the minimum spacing when taking off behind a large or heavy aircraft?
2 minutes

When should you lift off/land behind a heavy aircraft?
 T/O: Before rotation
 LDG: Beyond nosewheel down

Is wake turbulence from aircraft operation on other runways a hazard?
Yes

What effect would a 5 knot crosswind have on vortices?
Can hold vortices on runway or blow to parallel runway (~5kt speed)

What is minimum spacing when landing behind a large/heavy aircraft?

What is minimum spacing around a hovering helicopter?
3 rotor diameters

What is your flight path and touchdown behind a landing heavy aircraft?
 Flight path: Above
 Touchdown: Beyond nosewheel touchdown

What is wind shear?
Sudden change in wind direction or speed

Describe a decreasing performance wind shear
 Lesser to greater tailwind OR
 Greater to lesser headwind
= Airspeed, pitch & VSI decrease

Describe an increasing performance wind shear
 Greater to lesser tailwind OR
 Lesser to greater headwind
= Airspeed, pitch & VSI increase

What are the cockpit indications of flying through a microburst?
Increasing performance windshear, downwash (VSI), decreasing performance windshear

With a reported 5 knot loss, what adjustments should you make?
T/O flaps, 5 knots add

What is the maximum airspeed adjustment?
10 knots

A body at rest tends to remain at rest...
Law of Equilibrium

The measurement of the average kinetic energy of air particles is called
Temperature

What is the benefit of a tapered wing?
Structural stiffness

Law of interaction?
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Which airfoil produces no lift at zero degrees angle of attack?
Symmetric airfoil

What is the benefit of geometric and aerodynamic twist on a wing?
The wing root stalls before the wing tip

Parasite drag is define as drag
caused by anything other than the creation of lift

In level flight an increase in velocity will
decrease induced drag

Ground effect is the phenomenon that reduces ___ due to a decrease in ___
induced drag; downwash

Thrust available ___ as a velocity increases for a prop driven aircraft
Decreases

As velocity increases, a propeller's P_{A} will initially increase then
Decrease

To roll the airplane to the right
Right aileron rises decreasing lift, left aileron lowers increasing lift

For the nose of the airplane to pitch up, the
trailing edge of the elevator must move up in relation to the horizontal stabilizer

Increasing the camber of the wing
increases lift

The T6A has which kind of trailing edge flags?
Split flaps

Aerodynamic force is the
result of pressure and friction distribution over an airfoil

A ___ airfoil produces lift at zero degrees AOA
positively cambered

Maximum excess power for a propdriven aircraft occurs ____ L/D_{MAX}
at

As altitude increases, power available _____
decreases

Takeoff distance can be reduced by
increasing wing camber

Pfactor is caused by
one prop blade creating more thrust than its opposing blade

Asymmetric G limits are lower than symmetric because
the lift on the upgoing wing is experiencing more G than what is read on the accelerometer

Neutral dynamic stability is
oscillations never dampen but remain at a constant amplitude

What is lateral stability?
Generates forces that reduce the bank angle and returns to wingslevel

Crosscoupling causes
spiral and directional divergence

Max glide range is obtained by
flying at L/D_{MAX}

Slipstream swirl is most noticeable
at high power settings and low airspeed

