# AE103

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1. Define Vector
Quantity of magnitude and direction
2. Define Force
Push or pull exerted on a body
3. Define Mass
Quantity of molecular material
4. Define Volume
Amount of space occupied
5. Define Density
Mass/Volume (Mass per unit volume)
6. Define Weight
Force toward the Earth on mass (gravity)
7. Define Moment
Force applied a distance from a fulcrum
8. Define Work
Done when a force moves a body

Force x distance
9. Define Power
Work per unit time - Work/Time
10. Define Energy
Capacity to do work
11. Define Potential Energy
Energy of position or state
12. Define Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
13. What happens to air density and temperature as altitude increases?
Both decrease
14. What atmospheric properties affect pressure?
Density - p

Temperature - T

P = pRT (R= gas constant)
15. What is static pressure?
Force that molecules of air exert on each other by their random movement
16. What is dynamic pressure?
Measurement of impact pressure of a large group of air molecules moving together
17. What is total pressure?
Dynamic + static
18. Define True altitude
Actual height above MSL
19. Define Pressure altitude
Height above standard datum plane (29.92)
20. Define Density altitude
Pressure altitude corrected for temperature
21. Define Indicated airspeed
Airspeed from ASI
22. Define Calibrated airspeed
IAS corrected for instrument error
23. Define Equivalent airspeed
CAS corrected for compressibility

significant approached speed of sound
24. Define True airspeed
Speed through an air mass
25. What is groundspeed?
TAS corrected for winds
26. What happens to TAS in a constant IAS climb?
Increases
27. Define Wingspan
Length, wingtip to wingtip
28. Define Chordline
Infinitely long line through leading & trailing edge of airfoil
29. Define Chord
Width of wing

Measure of the wing along the chordline, from leading edge to trailing edge
30. Define Tip chord
Width of wing at tip
31. Define Root chord
Width of wing at root
32. Define Average chord
Average of all chords
33. Define Wing area
Wingspan times average chord
34. Define Taper
Reduction in chord from root to tip
35. Define Sweep angle
Angle between 1/4 chord line and line parallel to the lateral axis
36. Define Aspect ratio
Wingspan/average chord
Weight/wing area
38. Define Angle of incidence
Angle between chordline and longitudinal axis
39. Define Dihedral angle
Upwards slope of wing viewed from head-on
40. Define Pitch attitude
Angle between longitudinal axis and horizon
41. Define Flight path
Aircraft path through air
42. Define Relative wind
Airflow experienced by aircraft/airflow
43. Define Angle of attack
Angle between relative wind and chordline
44. Define Mean camber line
Line halfway between upper and lower surface of airfoil
45. Define Symmetric airfoil
Mean camber and chordline are equal
46. Define Aerodynamic center
Point on chordline where changes in aerodynamic forces take place
47. Define Spanwise/chordwise flow

Chordwise- perpendicular to leading edge (produces lift)
48. What is the relationship of thrust and drag, lift and weight, in level, unaccelerated flight?
Thrust = drag; Lift = weight
49. What is the relationship between lift and weight, thrust and drag, during takeoff ground roll?
Weight > lift; Thrust > drag
50. What is equal, but opposite relative wind?
Flight path
51. What are the three airplane axis?
Longitudinal, vertical, lateral
52. What are the motions about the axis?
• Roll - Longitudinal
• Yaw - Vertical
• Pitch - Lateral
53. Aileron axis?
Roll
54. Elevator axis?
Pitch
55. Rudder axis?
Yaw
56. What is the center of gravity?
Point where weight is concentrated
57. What is the normal relationship between the aerodynamic center and the center of gravity?
CG is forward of aerodynamic center
58. What are the results of the CG being too far aft or too far forward?
• Too far aft - tail heavy
• Too far forward - nose heavy
59. What are the components of aerodynamic force?
Lift and drag
60. What is the relationship of lift and drag to the relative wind?
• Drag is parallel
• Lift is perpendicular
61. Changing which factor in the lift equation will affect lift the most?
V (velocity)

L = 1/2pV2CLS
62. How can the pilot change lift?
Primarily with AOA and velocity

Also by changing camber with flaps
63. What is the relationship between velocity and angle of attack in level flight?
Inverse relationship; AOA increases as velocity decreases
64. What factor changes in maintaining level flight at 1000 ft versus 18000 ft?
TAS increases (decreased density requires increased velocity)
65. What is total drag?
Parasite + induced
66. What are the 3 types of parasite drag?
Form, Friction, Interference
67. Define Form drag
The difference between static pressure of the leading and trailing edges
68. Define Friction drag
Turbulent airflow in the boundary layer
69. Define Interference drag
Mixing airflows between aircraft components
70. What effect does lowering the gear have on drag?
Parasite drag increases
71. What happens to pitch as the gear is lowered?
Nose pitches down
72. Describe the effects on lift and drag causes by raising or lowering flaps
Lowering T/O flaps - more lift/little more drag

Lowering flaps from T/O to LDG - little more lift/ lot more drag

Raising from LDG to T/O - Lot less lift/ little less drag
73. What is induced drag?
Drag from lift
74. How does increased weight change induced drag?
Increases induced drag (airspeed constant)
75. At what velocities is induced drag greatest?
• Greatest - slower
• Least - faster
76. In level unaccelerated flight, what is the relationship between total drag and total thrust?
Equal
77. What is the relationship between total drag and velocity?
Drag decreases to a point, then increases
78. What is L/DMAX
Lowest point on the total drag curve

the ratio of lift to drag is greatest
79. Contrast thrust and shaft horsepower
• Shaft - engine output
• Thrust - propeller output
80. What is propeller efficiency?
Ability to convert shaft HP to thrust HP
81. Is 100% propeller efficiency possible?
No, gearbox friction and propeller drag
82. What determines power available?
Power produced at a given PCL setting, velocity and density
83. Define Thrust required
Thrust needed to overcome drag (TR = DT)

Thrust required = Total drag
84. Define Power required
Power needed to produce TR (thrust required)
85. Define Excess thrust
TA > TR ; climb or accelerate

Thrust available > Thrust required
86. Define Excess power
PA > PR ; climb or accelerate

Power available > Power required
87. What is the relationship between velocity and, TR and PR?
TR decreases to L/DMAX then increases

• PR decreases to airspeed below L/DMAX then increases
88. What is the result of PA being greater than PR?
Acceleration or climb
89. What happens to power required as altitude increases?
Increases
90. What effect does a change in configuration have on TA and TR?
No effect on TA

Gear and/or flaps down requires increased TR
91. What effect does a change in configuration have on PA and PR?
No effect change on PA

Gear and/or flaps down requires increased PR
92. What factors increase takeoff or landing roll?
More weight; Higher alt; Warm temp; Higher humidity; Less headwind; More tailwind
93. Changing which factor has the greatest effect on performance?
Weight
94. Define Max rate of climb
Most alt in least time
95. Define Max angle of climb
Most alt in least distance
96. Define Best glide speed
Airspeed that gives max power-off range
97. Define Max range
Max distance for set amount of fuel
98. Define Max endurance
Max time airborne for set amount of fuel
99. What factors decrease glide range?
Dirty configuration; Unfeathered prop; Lower alt; More headwind; Less tailwind
100. What factor changes groundspeed, but has no effect on TAS?
101. Where does max range for a propeller aircraft occur?
L/DMAX
102. Where does max endurance occur?
Some airspeed less than L/DMAX
103. What factors increase both max range and max endurance?
Less weight; Clean config; Higher alt; Colder temp
104. Where is the region of reverse command?
Left of max endurance on PR chart
105. What is the region of reverse command?
The part of the PR curve where a decrease in airspeed requires an increase in power
106. What is critical Mach?
Airspeed where first evidence of local supersonic flow occurs
107. Yaw resulting from propeller airflow past rudder
Slipstream swirl
108. Roll opposite propeller rotation
Propeller torque
109. Yaw resulting from asymmetric propeller thrust
P-factor
110. Action to correct slipstream swirl
Right rudder
111. Correction for P-factor
Opposite rudder
112. Action to correct for propeller torque
Opposite aileron
113. How many G's are required for a level 60 degree bank turn in a T-6 (or any aircraft)?
+2.0G
114. What control inputs are necessary for a coordinated level turn?
Stick/Rudder in direction of turn, then neutral; Stick back; PCL forward
115. Define Slip
Insufficient rudder in direction of turn; Needle & ball on same side
116. Define Skid
Too much rudder in direction of turn; Needle & ball opposite sides
117. Why must back pressure be added in a turn?
To increase total lift
118. Why must power be increased during a turn?
Increased AOA, therefore increased induced drag, therefore increased power
119. What factors limit the max bank angle and min turning velocity?
120. What two things determine turn rate and radius?
Velocity & angle of bank
122. Define Turn rate
126. Define Maneuvering speed
Cornering velocity - max speed where abrupt inputs will not cause damage
127. Define Asymmetric G's
Aileron or rudder deflected while pulling G's
128. What are the T-6 asymmetric load limits?
-1.0 to 4.7
129. What happens to load factor as bank increases?
Increases
130. Define Static stability (positive & negative)
Initial tendency to move forward or away from original state

• Positive- towards
• Negative- away
131. Define Dynamic stability
Measurement of displacement over time after disturbance
132. Define Sideslip angle
Angle between longitudinal axis and flight path
133. Define PIO (Pilot Induced Oscillations)
Pilot and longitudinal stability correcting for oscillations simultaneously
134. Describe directional static stability
Stability of longitudinal axis around vertical axis
135. Contrast stability and maneuverability
More stable, less maneuverable

Less stable, more maneuverable

Inverse
136. Describe boundary layer separation
Point where airflow no longer adheres to wing
137. Why does boundary layer separation occur?
138. What is a stall?
An increase in AOA results in a decrease in CL (coef of lift)
139. Contrast airspeed and roll tendency between a power-on stall and a power-off stall
• Power on: Lower speed, rolls left
• Power off: High speed, rolls right
140. What factors change stall airspeed?
141. How will the stall AOA change with an increase in weight?
Doesn't (AOA never changes) - Stall speed increase
142. How is the stall speed changed by a steeper bank angle?
Increases
143. What happens to stall speed when G's are increased?
Increases
144. In what order are the flight controls lost in a stall?
• Aileron
• Elevator
• Rudder
145. What is the function of leading edge slats?
Suppress boundary layer separation
146. Where does boundary layer separation move forward on the CL curve?
Bend point before CL MAX
147. Where does the stall occur on the Ccurve?
CL MAX (stall region to right)
148. What is the T-6 stall AOA?
18 units
149. What provides stall warning in the T-6?
Stick shaker, AOA gauge
150. When is the stick shaker activated?
5-10 knots above stall speed
151. What two factors are necessary for a spin?
Stall and yaw
152. Contrast lift and drag between a stalled aircraft and a spinning aircraft
• Stalled: Equal lift & drag
• Spin: Asymmetric lift & drag
153. What is the cause of asymmetry?
Yaw
154. Describe an erect accelerated spin
Stick other than full aft
155. Why is a left spin different from a right spin?
Gyroscopic effect of prop
156. What is poststall gyration?
Aerodynamic forces resulting in movement about the 3 axis
157. What is the primary factor affecting poststall gyration intensity?
Airspeed
158. Describe asymmetric wing stall
Uneven lift & drag (yaw) on opposite wings causes auto-rotation
159. When the stick is full aft, what happens to the pitch of a spinning T-6? What happens to the rotation rate?
• Pitch flattens
• Rotation rate slows
160. What is the primary difference between an inverted vs erect spin?
• Inverted: Negative G's
• Erect: Positive G's
161. What are the characteristics of a right spin?
Lower pitch (steeper), more oscillations, longer to stabilize, rotation rate increases
162. Which flight control provides the greatest anti-slip force?
Opposite rudder
163. What factors affect wingtip vortex strength?
Weight, speed, configuration
164. What generates wake turbulence?
Production of lift
165. Which direction do wingtip vortices rotate?
• Left: Clockwise
• Right: Counter-Clockwise
166. Describe the descent characteristics of wingtip vortices
• Sink 400-500ft/min
• Max sink 800-900ft/min
• Last ~2min
167. Which aircraft produce the strongest vortices?
Heavy, clean, slow
168. What are the hazards of wake turbulence?
• Induced roll, induced flow field (downward)
• Worst case: Loss of control
169. When do wingtip vortices begin?
At rotation
170. When do wingtip vortices stop?
Nosewheel down
171. What is the minimum spacing when taking off behind a large or heavy aircraft?
2 minutes
172. When should you lift off/land behind a heavy aircraft?
• T/O: Before rotation
• LDG: Beyond nosewheel down
173. Is wake turbulence from aircraft operation on other runways a hazard?
Yes
174. What effect would a 5 knot crosswind have on vortices?
Can hold vortices on runway or blow to parallel runway (~5kt speed)
175. What is minimum spacing when landing behind a large/heavy aircraft?
• Large - 2min
• Heavy - 3min
176. What is minimum spacing around a hovering helicopter?
3 rotor diameters
177. What is your flight path and touchdown behind a landing heavy aircraft?
• Flight path: Above
• Touchdown: Beyond nosewheel touchdown
178. What is wind shear?
Sudden change in wind direction or speed
179. Describe a decreasing performance wind shear
• Lesser to greater tailwind OR

= Airspeed, pitch & VSI decrease
180. Describe an increasing performance wind shear
• Greater to lesser tailwind OR

= Airspeed, pitch & VSI increase
181. What are the cockpit indications of flying through a microburst?
Increasing performance windshear, downwash (VSI), decreasing performance windshear
182. With a reported 5 knot loss, what adjustments should you make?
183. What is the maximum airspeed adjustment?
10 knots
184. A body at rest tends to remain at rest...
Law of Equilibrium
185. The measurement of the average kinetic energy of air particles is called
Temperature
186. What is the benefit of a tapered wing?
Structural stiffness
187. Law of interaction?
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
188. Which airfoil produces no lift at zero degrees angle of attack?
Symmetric airfoil
189. What is the benefit of geometric and aerodynamic twist on a wing?
The wing root stalls before the wing tip
190. Parasite drag is define as drag
caused by anything other than the creation of lift
191. In level flight an increase in velocity will
decrease induced drag
192. Ground effect is the phenomenon that reduces ___ due to a decrease in ___
induced drag; downwash
193. Thrust available ___ as a velocity increases for a prop driven aircraft
Decreases
194. As velocity increases, a propeller's PA will initially increase then
Decrease
195. To roll the airplane to the right
Right aileron rises decreasing lift, left aileron lowers increasing lift
196. For the nose of the airplane to pitch up, the
trailing edge of the elevator must move up in relation to the horizontal stabilizer
197. Increasing the camber of the wing
increases lift
198. The T-6A has which kind of trailing edge flags?
Split flaps
199. Aerodynamic force is the
result of pressure and friction distribution over an airfoil
200. A ___ airfoil produces lift at zero degrees AOA
positively cambered
201. Maximum excess power for a prop-driven aircraft occurs ____ L/DMAX
at
202. As altitude increases, power available _____
decreases
203. Takeoff distance can be reduced by
increasing wing camber
204. P-factor is caused by
205. Asymmetric G limits are lower than symmetric because
the lift on the up-going wing is experiencing more G than what is read on the accelerometer
206. Neutral dynamic stability is
oscillations never dampen but remain at a constant amplitude
207. What is lateral stability?
Generates forces that reduce the bank angle and returns to wings-level
208. Cross-coupling causes
spiral and directional divergence
209. Max glide range is obtained by
flying at L/DMAX
210. Slipstream swirl is most noticeable
at high power settings and low airspeed

## Card Set Information

 Author: strent61 ID: 247936 Filename: AE103 Updated: 2013-11-22 04:28:16 Tags: Aerodynamics Folders: Description: 15-02 Show Answers:

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