Urinary pathology

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  1. What is the functional unit of the kidney
    The nephron
  2. What does the kidney do?
    Filters blood and reabsorbs water and nutrients-excretes what it doesn't need in the form of urine
  3. Ureters are made up of
    Paristaltic smooth muscle
  4. _________ is a rare anomaly that may be associated with a variety of other congenital malformations. It results from a failure of the embryonic renal bud or renal vascular system to form.
    Renal agenesis (solitary)
  5. ________ is when there are extra kidneys
    Supernumerary kidney
  6. _______ often appears as a miniature replica of a normal kidney, with good function and a normal relationship between the amount of parenchyma and the size of the collecting system.
    Hypoplastic kidney
  7. Abnormally positioned kidneys (_________) may be found in various locations
    ectopic kidney
  8. When a kidney is bigger than normal it is termed
  9. A common type of fusion anomaly. Both kidneys are malrotated and their lower poles are joined by a band of normal renal parenchyma.
    Horseshoe kidney
  10. ____________ is a cystic dilation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the bladder. Found almost exclusively in children and infants. and associated with ureteral duplication
  11. ________ appears as a round or oval density surrounded by a thin radiolucent halo representing the wall of the prolapsed ureter and the mucosa of the bladder (cobra head sign)
  12. ________ is the most common of all bacterial infections of the urinary tract
  13. _________ is a nonsupportive inflammatory process involving the tufts of capillaries that filter the blood within the kidney. It represents an antigen-antibody reaction that most commonly occurs several weeks after an acute upper respiratory or middle ear infection
  14. _______ is a supportive inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis caused by pyogenc (pus forming) bacteria. Effects interstitial tissue between the tubules.
  15. The urographic hallmark of ________ is patchy calyceal clubbing, with over lying parenchymal scarring. Blunting of the calyces
  16. Inflammation of the bladder is termed
  17. In ultrasound cystitis shows as a
    In a cystogram it shows as
    • thickened wall
    • Irregular filling
  18. When a calculus takes up the whole renal pelvis and looks like the horns of a deer it is termed
    Staghorn calculi
  19. ______ are the most common unifocal masses of the kidney.They are fluid filled and usually unilocular, although septa sometimes divide them into chambers
    Simple renal cysts
  20. What is the modality of choice for distinguishing fluid filled simple cysyts from solid mass lesions?
  21. __________ an inherited disorder in which multiple cysts of varying size cause lobulated enlargement of the kidneys and progressive renal impairment, which presumably results from cultic compression of nephrons
    Polycystic kidney disease
  22. What is another word for obstruction in urography?
  23. _________ is the most common renal neoplasm
    Renal cell carcinoma
  24. ________ is the most common abdominal neoplasm of infancy and childhood. Arises from embryonic renal tissue, it may be bilateral, and it tends to become very large and appear as palpable mass.
    Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma)
  25. Bladder carcinoma is usually found in the _______ and appears on a cyst as a
    • trigone
    • filling defect
  26. ________ refers to a rapid deterioration in kidney function that is sufficient to result the accumulation of nitrogen-containing wastes in the blood
    Acute renal failure
  27. If a patient cannot take contrast because of a risk of renal failure ______ can be used
    carbon dioxide
Card Set
Urinary pathology
Holly's class
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