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Describe the flow of blood from the veins, into the heart, to the lungs, and back out to the body
Vena cava --> right atrium --> tricuspid valve --> right ventricle --> pulmonary valves --> pulmonary trunk --> pulmonary arteries --> lungs-->pulmonary veins --> left atrium --> bicuspid/mitral valve --> left ventricle --> aortic valve --> aorta -->body (or coronary arteries --> heart tissue --> coronary sinus --> right atrium)
Describe what is happening in the P, QRS, and T waves of an ECG
- P wave: depolerazation of atrial muscle and beginning of atrical contraction
- QRS Wave: depolerazation of ventricles then ventricular contraction
- T Wave: ventricular relaxation and repolarization
Atria repolarization are not seen
Describe how an electrical signal travels through the heart
Charge starts in the SA node and travels across wall of atrium to the AV node. Charge passes through AV node and along AV bundle, through the fibrous skeleton of the heart and into the interventricular septum. Chrage in the AV bundle divides into right and left branches and charge decends int o the apex of each ventricle. Finally charge is carred by the purkinje fibers to the ventricular walls.
What is "preload" and "afterload"?
Preload is the degree to which the ventricular walls are stretched at the end of diastole. Afterload is the pressure against which the ventricles must overcome in order to pump blood
Describe the regulation of blood pressure through beroreceptors
Baroreceptors detect changes in BP and then change the heart rate and force of contraction. These receptors are found in large arteries such as the aorta. When the receptors feel the stretch they send a signal to the medulla oblongata in the brain and the brain then sends aeither a parasympathetic or sympathic signal to slow down or speed up the heart and contract force. The receptor reflexes help to maintain blood pressure in short changes such as when excersising but don't maintain long term BP
What do lysozymes do and where can they be found?
They break down cells and can be found in tears, saliva, mucus and sweat
What is histamine and what does it do?
A protein from mast cells, basophils, and platelets. Causes vasodialtion, increased vascular permeability, stimlation of gland secretions, smooth muscle contraction in lungs and calls eosinophils to action
What are Kinins and what do they do?
Polypetides from plasma. Cause vasodilation, increase in vascular permeability, stimulate pain receptors and attract neutrophils
What are interferons and what do they do?
Proteins from most cells that interfere with virus production and infection by warning other cells that the one broadcasting is hijacked and must be destroyed
Complement proteins, what are they and what do they do?
Plasma prteins that increase vascular permeability, stimulate histamine and activate kinins
Prostaglandins, what are they and what do they do?
Group of lipids which cause smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation, increased vascular permeability and stimulate pain receptors
Leukotrienes, what are they and what do they do?
group of lipids produced by mast cells and basophils that cause prolonged muscle contraction, vascular permeability and attract neutrophils and eosinophils
What are Pyrogens and what do they do?
Released by neutrophils, monocytes and other cells that stimulate a fever
What are the immune cells of the innate immune system and what do they do?
Primary cells in the innate system are neutrophils, eosinophils, baophils, mast cells, monocytes and macrophages. The cellscome from red bone marrow and mature there and in tissues. The mature cells are found in blood, connective tissue and lymphatic tissue. The primary secratory products are histamine, kinins, complement, prostaglandins, leukotriences, and interferons. Their primary actions are inflammatory response and phagocytosis.
What are the immune cells of the adaptive immune system and what do they do?
The primary cells in adaptive immune system are B cells for the anti-body mediated system and T cells for cell mediated. They are made in the red bone marrow and b cells mature there ; T cells mature in the thymus. The mature cells can be found in blood and lymphatic tissue. B cells secret antibodies while T cells make cytokines. The B cells primary action is proection against extracellular antigens while the T cells protect against INTRACELLUAR antigens and tumors. B cells can be involved in immediate hypersensitivity while T cells are involved in delayed hypersensitivity.
Compare and contrast adaptive (antibody mediated and cell mediated) vs innate immunity
- Innate immunity
- Innate immunity refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into
- play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the
- body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin,
- chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign
- cells in the body. The innate immune response is activated by chemical
- properties of the antigen.
- Adaptive immunity
- Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific
- immune response. The adaptive immune response is more complex than the
- innate. The antigen first must be processed and recognized. Once an
- antigen has been recognized, the adaptive immune system creates an army
- of immune cells specifically designed to attack that antigen. Adaptive
- immunity also includes a "memory" that makes future responses against a
- specific antigen more efficient.
Adaptive immunity grows and changes depending on what the person is exposed to and cells learn. New antibodies are made and the body trains to react faster and faster to the same exposed antigen. This is very specific with what it reacts to.
With innate immunity the person is born with it and it cannot change Every person has the same innate immunity and these can be mechanical in nature (skin, mucous membranes, tears etc) chemical mediated, cells, and the inflamatory response.
Describe the actions in the complement cascade and what it does
- Classical pathway starts with antigen-antibody complex bindes to C1 and this turns on C4.
- Then C4 forms a complex with C2 and this turns on C3. Factors B,D, and P stabilize C3. C3 activates C5, C5 turns on C6, C6 turns on C7, C7 turns on C8 and C8 turns on C9. C3-c7 encourage phagocytosis, inflammation, ahd attracts cells (chemotaxis). C5-C9 combine to form a MAC (membrane attack complex) which bores through plasma membranes of enemy cells.
- The alternative pathway starts when C3 turns on by itself, then it follows the same cycle as the classic: C3 activates C5, C5 turns on C6, C6 turns on C7, C7 turns on C8 and C8
- turns on C9. C3-c7 encourage phagocytosis, inflammation, ahd attracts
- cells (chemotaxis). C5-C9 combine to form a MAC (membrane attack
- complex) which bores through plasma membranes of enemy cells.
Describe blood flow through the lymphatic system
What does a class MHC 1 molecule do on a cell?
MHC Class I molecules display antigens on the surface of cells, resulting in the destruction of that sell. This is like hostages holding up a sign saying "they'll kill us anyway, do what you have to do" and lets killer cells know that this one is infected and needs to be destroyed.
What does a class MHC II molecule do on a cell? What do these antigen presenting cells do?
MHC II molecues display the antigens on the surface of antigen presenting cells. These cells go around and let other immune cells know what to look for by displaying the target antigen for them. Antigen presenting sells stimulation the creation of helper T Cells and these stimulate creation of B or T effector cells
Describe immune system interaction as seen on 19.20
Antigen appears and innate immunity tries to stop it through mechanical mechanisms, neutrophils, chemcial mediators and interferons. If that doesn't work then Adaptive immunty kicks in.
A magrophage presents a processed antigen to ahlper T Cell. this helper T makes more of itself and secretes cytokines to enhance inflammation and phagocytosis. The helper Ts can either activate a cytotoxic T for activate a B cel.. Then the B or cytotoxic T creates memory B or T or Cytotoic Ts. The memory Bs and T prepare for a secondary reponse while the cytoxic cells (from cell mediated immunity) go out and start to fight any cell expressing the antigen they've been programmed to kill.
Describe the natural and artificial means of gaining active immunity
The natural way is when antigens are introduced through natural exposure such as encountering the antigen through the normal means that people usually are exposed (through the air, in the water, food, from touching a surface etc) The artificial way is when the antigen is given in a vaccine.
Describe passive acquired immunity and the natural and artificial methods of exposure
Passive immunity is immunity tranfered from another person or an animal. The natural way is when antibodies are given to a child from the mother through milk or placenta. The artifical way is when antibodies are produced by another person or animal and then injected like antivenoms and the old diptheria antitoxin.