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What are Vitamins?
Organic substances required in tiny amounts to promote one or more specific and essential biochemical reactions within the cell that regulates normal body metabolism.
What does "Vita" and "amine" mean?
- Vita= life
- Amine= contains N
What are the (5) general points of importance of vitamins?
- a) Organic components of natural foods distinct from carbs, fat, protein and water
- b)Present in food in minute amounts, effective in the animal body in small amounts
- c)Essential for development of normal tissue, necessary for metabolic activity but does not enter the structural portion of body
- d)When absent from diet or not properly absorbed (or utilized) results in specific deficiency disease or syndrome
- E) Cannot be synthesized by the animal, therefor must be obtained from the diet or microbial synthesis in the digestive tract
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
How are fat soluble vitamins classified?
Based on solubility (not quantity required)
They are also absorbed with fat, stored in the body (liver) and excreted in feces.
Is there Vitamin A in plants?
No, but there are vitamin A precursors referred to as carotenoids, which are found in fresh green plants, fruits, and veggies.
What are carotenoids converted to in the animal body?
What are the functions of Vitamin A?
- a) Required for normal bone growth and remodeling (osteoblastic activity)
- b)Maintains health of epithelial tissues that line or cover body surfaces or cavities.
- c)Required for normal night vision
- d)Antioxidant that helps prevent "free radical" formation which are highly reactive atoms in molecules that have been oxidized. (also protect against carcinogenic agents)
What are the deficiency symptoms of Vitamin A?
- 1. Night blindness
- 2.Xeropthalmia (dry eyes)
- 3. Poor growth
- 4. reproductive failures
- 5. reduced egg production and hatch ability
What are some sources of Vitamin A (and carotenoids)?
- Beta Carotene-
- a) green leafy veggies, and yellow veggies
- b) fresh pasture, green chop
What are some factors that decrease carotene content (and also degrade vitamin A)
- a) U.V. Light-sun bleached hay from fluorescent lights in stores
- b)ensiling- decrease carotene 50% by time it's fed.
- d) oxygen
- e) mold
- (C,D,E, there is little carotene remaining in stored feed)
What vitamin is high in colostrum milk?
Vitamin A, and it is supplemented in skim or low fat milk
What is retinol?
Pure form of Vitamin A and is very chemically unstable. Not good to supplement in pure form.
What is the best form of Vitamin A to supplement in the diet?
a synthetic form bound to a volatile fatty acid such as acetic acid. (* retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate are chemically stable forms that are used commonly)
Can Vitamin A toxicity occur? How?
Yes, Vitamin A is not excreted readily, and it is stored, so long-term ingestion of large amounts may result in toxic symptoms.
What are some of the symptoms of Vitamin A toxicity?
Anorexia, weightless, skin thickening, scaly dermatitis, swelling and crusting of eyelids, hemorrhaging, decreased bone strength and eventually death
What was Vitamin D discovered to be in large amounts in?
Cod liver oil
What are the two major structures of Vitamin D that are of major importance?
Ergosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol
What is Ergosterol?
The chief plant source as growing plants do not contain vitamin D
What happens to ergosterol (precursor) once it is subjected to UV sunlight after harvest or milling? (or produced by irradiating yeast)
converted into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2)
What is Vitamin D referred to as?
The sunshine vitamin
After sunlight (or UV light) exposure, what is 7-dehydrocholesterol converted to? And where is it found?
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)
What form of D vitamin can most mammals use efficiently? What animal cannot use it as well?
- D2 or D3
- Bird can't use D2 as well ( ~14% as efficient)
What are the conversion steps to get Vitamin D to it's physiologically active form?
(Liver) converted to 25 hydroxy D3 --> (Kidney) converted to 1,25 dihydroxy D3 (active form)
What are the functions of Vitamin D in it's active form?
- (active form 1,25 D3)
- 1) enhances Ca absorption from SI, essential for normal bone growth and development
- 2)enhances mineralization of bones
What are the symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency?
- Rickets in kids, osteoporosis or osteomalacia in adults
- Soft egg shells and reduced egg production
What are some sources of Vitamin D?
Feed sources- sun-cured ham, irradiated yeast, fish liver oils (UV irradiated ergosterol, D2, increases with drying time while carotene content decreases with sun
Not many foods have Vitamin D- milk is fortified @ 400 I.U/qt with 200 IU=RDA for humans
What happens during Vitamin D toxicity?
Decalcification of skeletal tissue, calcification of soft tissue, decreased appetite along with nausea and headaches.
What is the most biologically active form of Vitamin E?
Tocopherol is the active form in general
other forms are beta and gamma, but have less E activity
Is Vitamin E stable?
What is the most commercially available Vitamin E?
No, very unstable in pure form and is subject to oxidation
Tocopherol acetate, which is more chemically stable
What are the functions of Vitamin E?
- 1) it is an antioxidant- ties up excess O2 in oil containing feeds and in the animal body (this action prevents oxidative breakdown of cell membrane fatty acids, thereby maintaining the integrity of cellular membranes)
- 2) muscular structure
- 3) Reproduction- enhances fertility
What are deficiency symptoms of Vitamin E?
"Vitamin in search of a disease", no clear symptoms attributed to only Vitamin E.
- 1)muscle dystrophy (as described with Se)
- 2)Reproductive failures
What are some sources of Vitamin E?
- 1) whole grains
- 2) veggie oils
- 3) green forages
(storage losses result in heat and O2
exposure, decreasing the potency of E by oxidation, which is why E is routinely supplemented to all livestock diets)
Vitamin K is really what?
A group of compounds.
What are the two most important natural sources of Vitamin K?
K1 and K2
What are the different types of Vitamin K and what is each importance?
- K1- phylloquinone, common in green veggies
- K2- menaquinone, a product of bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal tract (microbial synthesis)
- K3- menadione, a synthetic source that is used widely commercially.
What are the functions of Vitamin K?
- Required for normal blood clotting
- Necessary to synthesize prothrombin in the liver. (K is not a component of prothrombin but acts on enzyme systems involved in prothrombin synthesis.)
*Referred to as the Anti-hemorrhage Vitamin
What are deficiency symptoms of Vitamin K?
Prolonged blood clotting time
What are sources of Vitamin K?
- 1) Green forages
- 2) Fish meal
- 3) synthetic form, K3
What is an antagonist of Vitamin K?
Dicoumarol (found in weather damaged sweet clover hay. If the hay is put in the barn too wet).
Coumarin (Natural in clover) --mold-->Dicoumarol--> a vitamin K antagonist converting K2 to the nonfunctioning form, inhibiting blood clotting
What can the presence of Dicoumarol in hay or silage cause?
Massive internal hemorrhages and death in calves.
What is Warfarin?
A competitive inhibitor of Vitamin K2 (the metabolically active form)
How are water soluble vitamins different from fat soluble vitamins?
Water soluble vitamins are not stored in appreciable amounts in body tissue (except B12)
How often must water soluble vitamins be supplied?
On a daily basis unless they are produced in sufficient quantities by GI tract microbes
In ruminants by synthesis in the rumen and in herbivores such as the horse or rabbit by synthesis that occurs in the cecum or colon
How much water soluble vitamins are required? and what do they function as?
Required in minute amounts
Function as coenzymes or organic components of coenzymes, which are similar to a cofactor but organic. These vitamins have broad functions in cellular metabolism.
What happens if water soluble vitamins are unavailable to the tissues in sufficient amounts?
profound abnormalities in metabolism
Are water soluble vitamins usually toxic?
No, usually non-toxic, even in large amounts, because they are rapidly excreted in the urine
What are good sources of water soluble vitamins?
Green leafy veggies and plants, dairy products, meat, whole grains, and yeast.
What is the major function of Thiamin (B1)?
What results from it?
What are the deficiency symptoms?
- - phosphorylated in the liver to form thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) which converts pyretic acid --TPP--> acetyl coenzyme A.
- - Vitamin B1 is important in harvesting energy from carbs via krebs cycle
- -Convulsions, cardiovascular disturbances, anorexia, emaciation and beriberi in humans.
What is the major function of Riboflavin (B2)?
What is it involved in?
- -component of coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)- involved in krebs cycle and energy generation
- - Dermatitis, weight loss, curled toe paralysis in birds (chicks)
What is the major function of Niacin (B3)?
- -Constituent of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NADP
- *NAD and NADP are coenzymes involved in glycolysis and the kreb's cycle, deriving energy from nutrients
- - Called Pellagra in humans
- (The 4 d's)
- 3) dementia
- 4) death
- Also inflammation and ulceration of the mouth
What is pyridoxine (B6)?
What is the major function of pyridoxine (B6)?
What are the deficiency symptoms?
- - It is a component of the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate
- - involved in amino acid decarboxylation and transamination, therefore, vitamin B6 is important in………
- and also involved in red blood cell formation
- - skin lesions, convulsions and anemia
Why is Vitamin B12 unusual?
What is the major function?
- - a) produced only by microbes
- b) in foods of animal origin only (except yeast an beer), plants do not need or produce it
- c) the only B vitamin stored long term
- - A crucial component of several coenzymes
- - anemia, hatching problems in hens
What is the major function of Pantothenic acid?
- - Component of acetyl coenzyme A molecule
- - dermatitis, loss of hair
What is the major function of Biotin?
What are the deficiency symptoms?
- - in the coenzyme carboxylase, which is important in glucose, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism
- - dermatitis and loss of hair, perosis in chicks
What are the major functions of Choline?
What are the deficiency symptoms?
- - a) component of lecithin (a phospholipid)- which is an essential component of…..
- b)a component of acetyl choline- necessary for nerve impulse transmission
- c) fat metabolism
- Perosis in chicks; poor reproduction in swine, fatty liver and kidney degeneration in other species
What is the major function of Folic Acid?
- - involved in enzyme systems that incorporate single C units into larger molecules (ex. amino acids into protein)
- - anemia (related to B12)
What are the major functions of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)?
- - Collagen metabolism, iron absorption, antioxidant and hydrogen transport
- - Scurvy- bleeding gums, slow wound healing, hemorrhaging and anemia