Chemical Reactions 1of2
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What is a chemical reaction?
- The breaking apart or forming of chemical bonds between atoms.
- Chemical reactions can OVERALL either release or absorb energy.
- The interactions of valence electrons are the basis of all chemical reactions.
- Chemical reactions are foundation of all life processes.
What is a reactant in a chemical reaction?
- The starting substance or substances.
- In a chemical reaction,the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products. However, because the atoms are rearranged, the reactants and products have different chemical properties.
What is a product in a chemical reaction?
- The ending substance or substances.
- In a chemical reaction,the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products (same amount of atoms). However, because the atoms are rearranged, the reactants and products have different chemical properties.
What is energy? (en-- in, -ergy-- work)
The capacity to do work.
What are the two principal forms of energy?
- Potential energy
- Kinetic energy
What is potential energy?
Energy stored in matter due to its position.
What is kinetic energy?
The energy associated with matter in motion.
What is chemical energy?
- A form of potential energy stored in the bonds of compounds and molecules.
- The total amount of energy present at the start and end of a chemical reaction is the same.
What is the law of conservation of energy?
The total amount of energy present at the beginning and end of a chemical reaction is the same. Although energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it may be converted from one form to another.
What is a exergonic reaction?
- A chemical reaction that releases more energy than it absorbs OVERALL.
- Exergonic reactions often fuel endergonic reactions by providing activation energy.
What is an endergonic reaction?
- A chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases OVERALL.
- Exergonic chemical reactions often provide the activation energy required for endergonic reactions.
What is activation energy?
- The collision energy required to break the chemical bonds of the reactants.
- The reactants must absorb enough energy for their chemical bonds to become unstable and their valence electrons to form new combinations. Then, as new bonds form, energy is released to the surroundings.
- The initial investment of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
What two things influence the chance of a chemical reaction happening?
How does concentration affect chemical reactions?
- Concentration - The amount of material (particles) in a definite space.
- The more particles in a given space the greater the chance they will collide.
- Pressure also affects concentration by forcing particles closer together.
How does temperature affect chemical reactions?
- When the temperature rises particles move faster and the chance they collide increases.
- Particles also collide with more force the faster they move.
What is a catalyst?
- Something that lowers the activation energy required to start a chemical reaction, such as an enzyme.
- Catalysts also help orient the position of large molecules so they collide at the right points to create reactions.
- Catalysts are unchanged by chemical reactions and can be used again and again.
Why are catalysts necessary for most chemical reactions in the body?
- Because body temperature and concentrations of reacting particles in body fluids are to low to produce enough chemical reactions.
- The temp and concentration required could kill or damage body cells.
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