UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 31

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UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 31
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UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 31
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UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 31
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  1. How do fungi feed?
    Absorption. Fungi are heterotrophic
  2. T or F: Fungi can make their own food
    False. They must absorb their nutrients from their surroundings whether it be living or dead
  3. What can fungi secrete to help break down complex molecules in it's surroundings to smaller organic compounds that it can easily absorb?
    • Hydrolytic Enzymes
    • They can also use these enzymes to penetrate cell walls too.
  4. What are the most common fungal body structures?
    Multicellular filaments and single cells (Yeasts)
  5. What are hyphae?
    Networks of tiny filaments within fungi
  6. Fungal cell walls are strengthened by what?
    Chitin
  7. Fungal hyphae form an interwoven mass called a:
    Mycelium. (Kind of like tiny roots)
  8. Fungi concentrate its energy and resources on what?
    Adding hyphal length and thus overall absorptive surface area
  9. How can fungi technically move into new territory?
    By extending their hyphae
  10. What divides hyphae into cells?
    Septa
  11. Septa generally have pores large enough to:
    allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei to flow from cell to cell
  12. Fungi that lack septa are known as:
    Coenocytic Fungi
  13. The coenocytic condition is the result from:
    The repeated division of nuclei without cytokinesis
  14. Coenocytic fungi generally have how many nuclei?
    A fuck ton. Hundreds or thousands
  15. Specialized hyphae which fungi use to extract nutrients from, or exchange nutrient with, their plant hosts are called what?
    Haustoria
  16. Mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots  are called:
    Mycorrhizae
  17. How can Mycorrhizal Fungi benefit plants?
    By improving the delivery of phosphate ions and other minerals to plants because the vast mycelial networks of fungi are more efficient than the plants roots
  18. How can plants benefit Mycorrhizal fungi?
    By supplying them with organic nutrients such as carbohydrates
  19. What are the two main types of Mycorrhizal fungi?
    • Ectomycorrhizal fungi
    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
  20. How do ectomycorrhizal fungi sync with plants?
    By forming sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a plant root and by growing into the extracellular space of plant root cortex
  21. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi sync with plants?
    By extending branching hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination (pushing inward)
  22. Mycorrhizal fungi colonize soil by dispersing haploid cells called:
    spores
  23. Fungal spores in the soil will form what after germination?
    New Mycelia
  24. Fungal sexual reproduction begins with what?
    When hyphae from two different mycelia release sexual signaling molecules called pheromones
  25. What are the sexual signaling molecules released by fungal hyphae called?
    Pheromones
  26. The union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycelia is known as:
    Plasmogamy
  27. A fungal mycelium that contains two or more haploid nuclei per cell are:
    heterokaryon
  28. A fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent is:
    dikaryotic
  29. The fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents is known as:
    karyogamy
  30. The only diploid stage in most fungi is:
    karyogamy
  31. List the life cycle of sexual reproduction in fungi
    • 1. Release of pheromones between two different mycelia
    • 2. Plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm)
    • 3. Heterokaryotic stage 
    • 4. Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei)
    • 5. Zygote (as a result of karyogamy)
    • 6. Meoisis forms spores from the zygote
    • 7. Spores then germinate into mycelium
  32. Fungi that reproduce asexually by growing as filamentous fungi that produce haploid spores by mitosis are collectively known as:
    Molds
  33. List the life cycle of asexual reproduction of fungi:
    • 1. Mycelium develop into filamentous structures 
    • 2. Filamentous structures produce spores by mitosis
    • 3.Spores germinate into mycelium
  34. Collectively, fungi lacking sexual reproduction are classified as:
    deuteromycetes
  35. What was the ancestor of fungi?
    A single celled, flagellated protist
  36. The clade of organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including animals, fungi and certain protists is known as:
    Opisthokonts
  37. Members of a group of unicellular, amoeboid protists that are more closely related to fungi than they are to any other protist are known as:
    nucleariid
  38. Ancestors of animals and fungi diverged into separate lineages about how many years ago?
    1 Billion Years Ago
  39. The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only how many years old?
    460 million years
  40. What are microsporidia?
    Unicellular parasites of animals and protists
  41. How are microsporidia unlike most eukaryotes?
    They do not have a conventional mitochondria
  42. Chytrids belong to the phylum:
    Chytridiomycota
  43. Mainly aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores that represent an early diverging fungi lineage
    Chytrids
  44. Chytrids have cell walls made of:
    Chitin
  45. Why are chytrids unique fungi?
    They have flagellated spores called zoospores
  46. What are some examples of zygomycetes?
    • Fast growing molds
    • Parasites or as comensal (neutral) symbionts of animals
  47. Plasmogamy in zygomycetes produces what?
    Zygosporangium
  48. Karyogamy and meosis in zygomycetes occurs in what structure?
    zygosporangium
  49. What are the five major groups of fungi?
    • Zygomycetes
    • Ascomycetes 
    • Chytrids
    • Glomeromycetes
    • Basidiomycetes
    • (ZAC GB)
  50. Glomeromycetes are an ecologically significant group why?
    Because nearly all of them form arbuscular mycorrhizae. The tips of their hyphae branch into tiny treelike arbuscules within roots. 90% of plants have mutualistic partnership with glomeromycetes
  51. What is the defining feature of ascomycetes?
    The production of spores in saclike asci during sexual reproduction.
  52. Which group of fungi are commonly known as sac fungi?
    Ascomycetes
  53. In ascomycetes, which structures contain the spore forming asci?
    ascocarps
  54. How to ascomycetes reproduce?
    Asexually by producing massive numbers of asexual spores called conidia
  55. Mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi belong to which group of fungi?
    Basidiomycetes
  56. Basidium is latin for:
    Little Pedestal
  57. Where does karyogamy occur in basidiomycetes?
    In a cell called a basidium
  58. The "club fungus" is another word for which group of fungi?
    Basidiomycetes
  59. What is a lichen?
    A symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae
  60. What are soredia?
    small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae
  61. What is the general term for an infection caused by a fungal parasite?
    Mycosis
  62. What is the defining feature of Basidiomycota?
    Elaborate fruiting body containing many basidia that produce sexual spores
  63. What is an endophyte?
    A fungus that lives inside a leaf or plant without causing harm to the plant

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