Respiratory 1

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  1. Upper respiratory system consists of
    mouth, nose, paranasal sinuses and pharynx
  2. Lower respiratory system consists of
    larynx, trachea, principal bronchi,  bronchial tree, pleura, mediastinum, lungs, and diaphragm
  3. Look at axis in book
  4. Conducting airway is from the _____ to the ______
    nose to the terminal bronchioles
  5. Larynx starts and ends where
    starts at base of tongue (hyoid bone) and extends to beginning of trachea.
  6. 3 paired cartilages of larynx
    • arytenoid
    • corinculate
    • cuneiform
  7. 3 unpaired cartilages of larynx
    • thyroid
    • cricoid
    • epiglottis
  8. extrinsic muscles of larynx (4)
    • -inferior constrictor
    • -sternothyroid
    • -thyrohyoid
    • -stylopharyngeus and palatopharyngeus (few fibers)
  9. Extrinsic muscles of Larynx
    (Indirect elevators 3)
    • Geniohyoid
    • stylohyoid
    • mylohyoid
  10. Extrinsic muscles of Larynx
    (Indirect depressors 2)
    • Sternohyoid
    • Omohyoid
  11. List intrinsic muscles of Larynx (7)
    • 1. cricothyroid
    • 2. cricoarytenoid (posterior and lateral)
    • 3. transverse arytenoid
    • 4. oblique arytenoid
    • 5. aryepiglotticus
    • 6. thryoarytenoid
    • 7. thyroepiglotticus
  12. Fx of cricothyroid (intrinsic) muscle of larynx
    lengthen and stretches vocal cords tensor muscle
  13. Fx of posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid (intrinsic) muscle of larynx
    posterior- only one that abducts, all others adduct

    lateral- adducts cords and closes glottis
  14. Fx of transverse arytenoid (intrinsic) muscle of larynx
    only unpaired muscle, adducts, pulls arytenoids toward eachother
  15. Fx of oblique arytenoid (intrinsic) muscle of larynx
    narrow inlet, constricts

    (something about disease in notes ????)
  16. Fx of aryepiglotticus (intrinsic) laryngeal muscle
    close opening when swallowing occurs
  17. fx of thyroarytenoid (intrinsic) muscles of larynx
    tensor, wide inlet, lower voice pitch
  18. Fx of thyroepiglotticus (intrinsic) muscles of larynx
    widens inlet, involved with closure of epiglottis during swallowing
  19. sphincter of the vestibule in larynx
  20. opener of laryngeal inlet
  21. abductors of the vocal cords
    posterior cricoarytenoid
  22. tensors of the cord
  23. adductors of the cord
    • transverse arytenoid
    • lateral cricarytenoid
    • cricothyroid
    • thyroarytenoid
  24. relaxers of the cord
    thryoaryenoid vocalis
  25. Internal laryngeal nerve is located _____ the vocal cords and the recurrent laryngeal nerve is located ____ the vocal cords

  26. Damage to internal laryngeal nerve abolishes?

    This increases risk for what?
    cough reflex

    This increases risk for foreign body or aspiration pnemonia
  27. Vocal cords open for _____ and close for ______?
    inspiration and swallowing
  28. Superior laryngeal nerve has what two nerves and what do they do
    • internal laryngeal nerve- sensory info above vocal cords
    • external laryngeal nerve- motor fx to cricothyroid cartilage.
  29. Recurrent laryngeal nerve does what
    • (does both sensory and motor)
    • sensory info below vocal cords
    • motor fx to all muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
  30. Unilateral damage to superior nerve (internal and external) causes.....

    -bilateral damage......
    unilateral- subtle finding

    bilateral- hoarseness
  31. Unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury

    Bilateral injury acute and chronic.....
    unilateral injury- deterioration of voice quality (hoarseness)

    • bilateral-
    • *acute-stridor and distress
    • *chronic- less severe body will adapt
  32. Causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
    • thyroid malignancies
    • lung and esophageal tumors
    • aortic arch aneurysms
    • mitral stenosis- left pulmonary artery pushed upwards, nerve gets compressed, between the Left pulmonary artery and the arch of aorta.
  33. Vagal nerve damage causes what
    bilateral flaccid midline cords

    phonation impaired- airway control is rarely a problem.
  34. Parasympathetic innervation (muscarinic) of resp system
    contraction and constriction of airways
  35. Sympathetic innervation of resp system

    Example of a drug:
    beta 2 receptors on bronchi activated by epinephrine (adrenal medulla) and beta 2 agonists.

  36. Right main bronchus
    • 2.5 cm long (from the carina)
    • shorter, wider, and more vertical than left stem
  37. Left main bronchus
    • -narrower than right
    • -5 cm long
    • -5 cm uninterrupted lumen by branching makes it suitable for intubation and blocking in thoracic surgery
  38. Left main bronchus degree

    In children
    takes off at 45 degrees

    55 degrees
  39. Right main bronchus degree
    takes off at 25 degrees
  40. How many alveoli in each lung
    300 million
  41. Alveoli are lined with surfactant that helps....
    decrease surface tension
  42. type I cells that form alveoli are called and do what
    pneumocytes , and they are structural cells
  43. type II cells that form alveoli are called_____ and do what?
    pnemocytes and they produce surfactant to reduce alveolar collapse from surface tension
  44. Tidal Volume
    normal TV
    • normal quiet breathing
    • 500 ml
  45. IRV
    total volume
    additional volume that can be inspired above tidal volume

  46. ERV
    total volume
    • the additional volume that can be expired below TV
    • 1200
  47. RV
    total volume
    the volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximal forced expiration


    ***cannot me measured by spirometry
  48. TLC=


    5900 ml
  49. VC=


  50. FRC=

    total volume

  51. Inspiratory capacity=

    total volume

  52. FRC is
    the balance point between the tendency of the chest wall to spring outwards and the tendency of the lung to recoil

    --what is remaining in the lungs after normal tv is expired
Card Set:
Respiratory 1
2013-11-20 23:26:16


A&P Test 5
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