Final Review

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Final Review
2013-11-20 13:26:00
Final Review

Final Review
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  1. What are the characteristics of living organisms?
  2. What are the
    characteristics of cells?
  3. What is a scientific
    theory? How does this differ from everyday usage of the term “theory”?
  4. What are the
    two components of a scientific theory?
  5. Describe the cell theory
  6. What are the two main types of cells?
    • Eukaryotic
    • Prokaryotic
  7. Describe prokaryotic cells
    with regard to: DNA storage/organization, site of protein synthesis, membranes.
  8. Describe eukaryotic cells
    with regard to: DNA storage/organization, site of protein synthesis, membranes.
  9. What type of
    cells from Q6 have membrane bound organelles?
  10. What are the advantages of
    membrane-bound organelles?
  11. For the following cellular
    organelles  (1) be able to identify and
    (2) describe their function: ribosomes, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough
    and smooth), peroxisome, lysosome, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplast
  12. Which organelles are present in only eukaryotes or in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
  13. Describe how
    the structure of a cell is correlated with its function.
  14. What are the most abundant
    elements in living organisms?
  15. What is the structure of an
  16. What is the
    atomic number? Mass number?
  17. What are
    valence electrons? How are they contribute to a atom’s reactivity?
  18. What are
    covalent bonds – polar and non-polar?
  19. What are ionic bonds?
  20. What is a hydrogen bond?
  21. What type of bond(s) are
    most often found in living organisms?
  22. What types of bonds are
    found in water?
  23. Define
    hydrophobic and hydrophilic.
  24. What is potential energy?
  25. What happens
    to the two in Q28 over the course of a chemical reaction?
  26. What
    determines if a particular reaction is spontaneous?
  27. What is the formula for
    Gibb’s free energy of a reaction? Define the variables
  28. Define endergonic, exergonic, endothermic, exothermic reactions. Which are
  29. Draw a graph of the change
    in free energy of a reaction for both a spontaneous and non-spontaneous
  30. What are the monomers of a
  31. What kind of bond joins Q34
  32. Draw a generalized amino
    acid with a “R” representing the side group. Label the amino and carboxyl
  33. How are side
    groups important?
  34. Describe the primary,
    secondary and tertiary structure of a protein.
  35. What kind(s) of bonds are
    important to each level of structure in Q38?
  36. What is the quaternary
    structure of a protein?
  37. List 5 functions of
    proteins in a cell.
  38. How are form and function
    related with respect to proteins?
  39. What are catalysts?
  40. How do
    enzymes catalyze biological reactions?
  41. Draw a graph of the free
    energy of a reaction with an enzyme. Label the transition state and activation
  42. How do
    enzymes affect the transition state & activation energy?
  43. Do enzymes change the
    overall free energy change of a reaction?
  44. What are cofactors?
  45. Describe
    competitive inhibition of an enzyme.
  46. What is
    allosteric activation? Deactivation?
  47. In Q49 & Q50 are the
    active sites involved?  Explain.
  48. What are the
    two types of nucleic acics?
  49. What are the monomers of
    nucleic acids?
  50. What are the
    3 components of Q56?
  51. How do the
    sugars and nitrogenous bases differ between DNA and RNA?
  52. What are pyrimidines?
    Purines? Draw one example of each.
  53. How many
    strands is DNA? RNA?
  54. If 2 strands in Q60, what
    holds the strands together?
  55. What are the base pairing
    rules? Which pairs have 2 hydrogen bonds? Three?
  56. Why is DNA
    said to be antiparallel?
  57. What is the function of
  58. What are
    four functions of RNA?
  59. Can DNA or
    RNA act as catalysts?Why?
  60. What elements make up
  61. What are three functions of
    carbohydrates in cells?
  62. Contrast
    mon-, di-, oligo- and poly-saccharides.
  63. Simple sugars are in which
    class from Q69?
  64. What is the
    bond between sugars in oligo- and polysaccharides?
  65. For starch,
    glycogen, cellulose and chitin, describe (1)structure and components; (2) type
    of cells that contain the particular polysaccharide and (3) function.
  66. What are lipids? Are they
    hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
  67. Draw the basic structure of
    a fat and label the glycerol and fatty acid tails.
  68. What is the
    difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Which are liquid at room
  69. What are steroids?
  70. What are phospholipids? How
    are they amphipathic?
  71. What kind of reaction
    builds all biological macromolecules discussed in class? What type of reaction
    breaks them?
  72. What are cellular membranes
    comprised of?
  73. Describe the terms “fluid”
    and “selectively permeable” with respect to cell membranes.
  74. Are biological membranes
    highly permeable, moderately permeable or impermeable to the following
    molecules: (1) small nonpolar (like carbon dioxide), small uncharged polar
    (like water), large uncharged polar (like sugars and amino acids) and charged
  75. How do the following affect
    membrane permeability: (1) saturation of tails; (2) cholesterol and (3)
  76. What is diffusion? Osmosis?
  77. If cells are placed in a
    (1) hypertonic, (2) isotonic, or (3) hypotonic solution will water move into or
    out of the cell? Define the terms 1-3.
  78. Describe the fluid mosaic
    model of cell membrane structure.
  79. What is facilitated
    diffusion? What types of molecules are transported in this manner?
  80. What is the difference
    between channel and carrier proteins and in what type of transport are they
  81. Is diffusion
    an active or passive process? Facilitated diffusion?
  82. What types of transport
    move molecules down their concentration gradients? Against their concentration
  83. What is endocytosis?