animal phys ch 14 osmolarity

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animal phys ch 14 osmolarity
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  1. tissues can tolerate dehydration as much as
    70%
  2. kidneys
    excretory organ
  3. osmolytes
    substances that increase intercellular osmolarity; urea and trimethylamine oxide
  4. obligatory osmotic exchange
    occur in response to physical factors over which animals have no control
  5. regulated osmotic exchanges
    physiologically controlled serve  to maintain internal homeostasis
  6. arginine vasotoxcin (AVT)
    controls permeability of amphibian skin
  7. countercurrent multiplication
    utilized in kidneys of birds and mammals to produce hyperosmotic urine which is more concentrated than the blood plasma
  8. loop of henle
    hairpin like bend in kidney tubule, allows birds and mammals to exploit dry enviroments
  9. eurhaline
    can tolerate a wide range of salinites
  10. stenohaline
    can tolerate on a narrow osmotic range
  11. freshwater animals  are usually
    hyperosmotic to their environment in the range of 200-300 mosm L-1. 1. subject to swelling 2. subject to loss of body salts
  12. chloride cells
    mediate transport of NaCl from the blood into the surrounding water
  13. human kidney can remove __ of Na + from the bloodstream per liter of urine produced
    6 g
  14. cortex
    outer layer of the kidney
  15. medulla
    inner layer of the kidney, sends papillae into renal pelvis
  16. kidney anAtomy
    renal pelvis goes to ureter that empties into urinary bladder. and micturition via the urethra
  17. release of urine is accomplished by
    simultaneous contraction of the smooth muscle of the bladder wall and relaxation of the skeletal muscle sphincter around the opening of the bladder. as the bladder is stretched by filling, stretch receptors in the wall generate nerve impulses.
  18. nephron
    • functional unit of the kidney, intricate epithelial tube
    • 80% cortical Nephron
    • 20% juxtamedullary Nephron
  19. collecting ducts
    each kidney contains numerous nephrons which empty into __
  20. collecting ducts combine to form
    papillary ducts which empty into the renal pelvis
  21. glomerulus
    formed from tuft of capillaries inside bowman;s capsule. responsible for the first step in urine formation
  22. vertebrates that lack the loop of henle are
    incapable of producing urine that is hyperosmotic to the blood
  23. juxtamedullary nephrons
    have their glomeruli in the inner part of the cortex and long loops of henle that plunge deeply into the medulla
  24. cortical nephrons
    their glomeruli in the outer cortex and short loops of henle extend a short distance into the medulla
  25. processes that contribute to composition of urine
    • -filtration of blood plasma to form ultrafiltrate in lumen of bowman's capsule
    • -tubular reabsorption of approx 99% of water and most salts from the ultrafiltrate, left behind conc waste product
    • -tubular secretion of number of substances, in nearly all instances via active transport
  26. glomerular ultrafiltrate contain
    all of blood expect blood cells and blood protein. filtration 15-20% of water and solutes are removed
  27. process of ultrafiltration in glomerulus depends on
    • -net hydrostatic pressure difference between the lumen of the glomerular capillaries and the lumen of bowman's capsule
    • -colloid osmotic pressure of blood plasma
    • hydraulic permeability of 3-layered tissue separating the two compartments
  28. fenestrated capillaries
    makes up the glomerulus, contains large pores that are 100x more permeable than the capilaries found in the body
  29. problems of osmoregulation
    • 1. extensive cellular dehydration results in impairment of metabolism
    • 2. changes in ion composition of extracellular fluid results in malfunctions of failure of electrical mechanisms (AP mech in all cells;synaptic mech in neural tissues)
    • 3. changes in pH affect all proteins and functions of all protein related mechs
  30. marine invertebrates have extracellular fluids
    similar to sea water
  31. vertebrate extracelluar ionic conc are about
    1/3 that of sea water (reflects freshwater origin of most vertebrates)
  32. urinary systems
    most important system involved in the regulation of extra cellular fluid and excretion of nitrogenous waste
  33. functions of urinary system
    • removal of soluble metabolic wastes
    • regulation of composition of blood including blood volume
    • homeostasis of extracellular fluid
  34. forms of nitrogen excretion
    • 1urea- 2N terrestrial vertebrates (ureotelic)
    • ammonia 1N aquatic animals(teleosts) (ammonotelic)
    • uric avid 4N birds and land reptiles (uricotelic)
  35. ammonia
    • formed by catabolism of amino acids
    • ammonia is toxic
  36. ammonia is salaved
    • 1.via glutamate reaction (ammonia + glutamate >>glutamine)
    • 2. some must excreted
  37. Marine birds
    • sea water    urine    nasal fluid
    • 3%              3%       5%
  38. Humans
    • sea water    urine    nasal fluid
    • 3%              2%       1%
  39. organs of system
    2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, 1 urethra
  40. peritoneum
    serous (highly vascularized), membrane of connective tissue, inside of abdominal walls and reflected over certain viscera
  41. mesentary
    double layered peritoneal fold connecting intestines to posteror abdominal wall
  42. interior anatomy
    cortex, medulla renal columns, pelvis
  43. functions of the kidney
    • 1. homeostasis of tissue fluids
    • a. excretion of nitrogen waste
    • b. maintenance of fluid volume (blood)
    • c. maintenance of fluid composition
    • d. assists in maintaining pH

    • 2. endocrine function (hormones)
    • a. makes erythroporetin (production of red blood cells in bone marrow)
    • b. makes renin
  44. substructures of kidney
    • 1 renal corpuscle contains glomerulus in bowman's capsule
    • 2. proximal convoluted tubule
    • 3. loop of henle
    • 4. distal convoluted tubule
    • 5. collecting duct
  45. mechanisms of the substructures of kidney
    • 1. filtration-bowman's capsule
    • 2.reabsorbtion- proximal convoluted tubule 75% and distal convoluted tubule
    • 3.secretion/synthesis - distal convoluted tubule
    • 4. final concentration- collecting duct

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