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Measures the volume and rate of air passing into and out of the lung.
- Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
- Loss of elasticity which results in expiratory flow limitation.
- Strong association with smoking.
- Can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure (cor pulmonale).
- Chronic dilation of bronchus secondary to infection.
- Treatment is palliative.
Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhilation) when there is fluid in the alveoli.
Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.
- The common cause of bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, and the common cold, especially in children.
- In tissue culture, it forms syncytia (giant cells), so that the cytoplasm flows together.
- Infectious disease caused by Myobacterium Tuberculosis.
- The lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected.
- Bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) invade the lungs, producing small tubercles or infection.
- PPD skin test is usually given.
- Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diptheria bacterium (corny bacteria).
- Inflammation occurs, and a leathery, opaque membrane forms in the pharynx and trachea.
- Whooping cough.
- Highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella Pertussis.
- Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity.
- Exudates: fluid from tumors and infection.
- Transudates: fluid from congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or cirrhosis.
Cancer of the larynx (voice box).
Squamos Cell Carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the squamos epithelial cells in the epidermis.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Listening to sounds within the body.
Tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of an underlying structure.
Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.
Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor.
- Collapsed lung.
- Incomplete expansion of alveoli.
Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.
Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.
Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles.
Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs.
Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura.
Collection of air in the pleural space.