HSCI 003 Chapter 12 Pathology

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tgherasim
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248137
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HSCI 003 Chapter 12 Pathology
Updated:
2013-11-21 19:01:05
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Medical Terminology
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Pathologies of the respiratory system.
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  1. Spirometer
    Measures the volume and rate of air passing into and out of the lung.
  2. Emphysema
    • Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
    • Loss of elasticity which results in expiratory flow limitation.
    • Strong association with smoking.
    • Can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure (cor pulmonale).
  3. Bronchiectasis
    • Chronic dilation of bronchus secondary to infection.
    • Treatment is palliative.
  4. Rales
    Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhilation) when there is fluid in the alveoli.
  5. Rhonci
    Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.
  6. RSV Virus
    • The common cause of bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, and the common cold, especially in children.
    • In tissue culture, it forms syncytia (giant cells), so that the cytoplasm flows together.
  7. Tuberculosis (TB)
    • Infectious disease caused by Myobacterium Tuberculosis.
    • The lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected.
    • Bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) invade the lungs, producing small tubercles or infection.
    • PPD skin test is usually given.
  8. Diptheria
    • Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diptheria bacterium (corny bacteria).
    • Inflammation occurs, and a leathery, opaque membrane forms in the pharynx and trachea.
  9. Pertussis Bacteria
    • Whooping cough.
    • Highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella Pertussis.
  10. Pleural Effusion
    • Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity.
    • Exudates: fluid from tumors and infection.
    • Transudates: fluid from congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or cirrhosis.
  11. Laryngeal Cancer
    Cancer of the larynx (voice box).
  12. Squamos Cell Carcinoma
    Malignant tumor of the squamos epithelial cells in the epidermis.
  13. Goiter
    Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  14. Auscultation
    Listening to sounds within the body.
  15. Percussion
    Tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of an underlying structure.
  16. Stridor
    Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.
  17. Croup
    Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor.
  18. Epistaxis
    Nosebleed.
  19. Atelectasis
    • Collapsed lung.
    • Incomplete expansion of alveoli.
  20. Penumoconiosis
    Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.
  21. Pneumonia
    Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
  22. Pulmonary Abcess
    Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.
  23. Pulmonary Edema
    Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles.
  24. Pulmonary Fibrosis
    Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs.
  25. Scaroidosis
    Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
  26. Mesothelioma
    Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura.
  27. Pneumothorax
    Collection of air in the pleural space.

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