Effects: 1. Increase of O2consumption 2. Increase energy consumption 3. Increase heart rate & force of contraction 4. Increase growth of skin, nails, and hair 5. Increase sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation 6. Increase metabolic rate 7. Increase body temperature
What can cause irregularities in thyroid hormone secretion (hypothyroidism / hyperthyroidism)?
Irregular secretion of one or all the following hormones:
TRH (hypothalamus), TSH (anterior pituitary), or T3 & T4 (thyroid gland)
What is hypothyroidism? How about hyperthyroidism?
Too little production of T4 & T3
Over production of T4 & T3
Which condition will be responded by Calcitonin secretion?
High blood Ca2+
which condition will be responded by Parathyroid Hormone secretion?
Low blood Ca2+
Source: Para thyroid glands
Target: kidneys, bones, and intestine
Effects: 1. Increase Ca2+ re-absorption in the kidneys 2. Increase osteoclast activity 3. Decrease osteoblast activity 4. Increase absorption of Ca2+ via the GI tract
1. Increase metabolic rate 2. Increase body temperature 3. Increase appetite 4. loss of weight 5. Increase cutaneous glands secretion 6. Soft/smooth skin & hair 7. Diarrhea 8. Hyperactivity & insomnia 9. Warm flushed skin
What symptoms are associate with hypothyroidism?
1. Decrease metabolic rate 2. decrease appetite 3. gain weight 4. decrease in body temperature 5. decrease secretion of cutaneous glands 6. Dry skin and hair 7. brittle nails 8. constipation 9. apathy & drowsiness 10.cold dry skin
Understand the process that forms T3 & T4
Iodine ions from our diet (in salt) taken up by the thyroid follicle → iodine ions activated by enzyme and bind to thyrosine (anomo acid in thyroglobulin Tg) → T3 & T4 are produced & stored in Tg → Tg containing T3 & T4 is pulled into the follicle cell → lysosomal enzyme separate T3 & T4 from Tg → T3 & T4 diffuse in the blood.
What is oxytocin released in response to?
Which hypothalamic nucleus produce ADH? Which hypothalamic nuleus produce oxytocin?