Endocrine system

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Author:
Neilgal
ID:
248195
Filename:
Endocrine system
Updated:
2013-12-04 11:19:34
Tags:
Hormones endocrine system
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Description:
Hormones sorted by name, released from, target tissue, and effects, endocrine, biol 224
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  1. Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: Decrease release of prolactin
  2. What stimulus oxytocin release?
    • uterine contraction
    • Nursing
    • Sexual arousal
  3. Oxytocin
    Source?
    Targets?
    Effects?
    • Source: Posterior pituitary
    • Targets: Uterus & mammary gland
    • Effects: 1. Increase uterine contractions (during child birth) 2. Milk ejection (during lactation)
  4. ADH released in response to which condition?
    • Increase solutes in the blood
    • decrease blood volume
    • decrease blood pressure
  5. Antidiuretic Hormone ADH
    Source?
    Targets?
    Effects?
    • Source: Posterior pituitary
    • Targets: Kidneys & thirst centers in the brain
    • Effects: 1.Decrease urination output 2. increase thirst 3. Increase blood volume 4. increase blood pressure
  6. Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone GHIH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: Decrease release of growth hormone (hGH)
  7. Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone GHRH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: increase release of growth hormone (hGH)
  8. Thyrotropin releasing Hormone TRH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: Increase release of Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  9. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH

    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: Increase release of Andrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  10. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone GnRH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: Increase release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  11. Human Growth Hormone hGH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: All tissues
    • Effect: 1. increase growth of tissue 2. Increase amino acid uptake & synthesis of protein 3. Increase glycogen synthesis 4. Decrease blood glucose
  12. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Thyroid
    • Effect: Increase production of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
  13. Prolactin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Mammary glands
    • Effect: 1. Production of milk 2. Increase sensitivity to LH & FSH
  14. Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH  In Female!
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Ovarian Follicle
    • Effect: 1. Maturation of follicle 2. production of estrogen
  15. Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH  In Male!
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Nurse cells (in testis)
    • Effect: Production & maturation of sperm cells
  16. Lueitenizing Hormone LH  In Female!
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Ovarian Follicle cells
    • Effect: 1. Ovulation 2. production of progesterone
  17. Luteinizing Hormone LH   In Male!
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Interstitial cells (in testis)
    • Effect: 1. production of testosterone 2. support sperm cells
  18. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary.
    • Target: Adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata)
    • Effect: increase release of glucocorticoids (Cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone)
  19. β Endorphin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Brain
    • Effect: 1. Reduce awareness of pain 2. Effects mood  3. decrease secretion of GnRH
  20. Lipotropin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Adipose tissue
    • Effect: Lipolysis (fat breakdown)
  21. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Melanocytes
    • Effect: Increase production of melanin (mostly in infants)
  22. Which hormones are derived form Pro-opiomelanocortins group?
    • MSH
    • Lipotropin
    • β Endorphin
    • ACTH
  23. Calcitonin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Parafollicular cells (in thyroid gland)
    • Target: kidneys & bones
    • Effects: 1. Increase Ca2+ secretion of kidneys 2. Decrease osteoclast activity 3. Increase osteoblast activity
  24. Thyroid Hormones T4 & T3
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Thyroid gland
    • Target: All cells / tissue
    • Effects: 1. Increase of O2 consumption 2. Increase energy consumption 3. Increase heart rate & force of contraction  4. Increase growth of skin, nails, and hair 5. Increase sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation 6. Increase metabolic rate  7. Increase body temperature
  25. What can cause irregularities in thyroid hormone secretion (hypothyroidism / hyperthyroidism)?
    • Irregular secretion of one or all the following hormones:
    • TRH (hypothalamus), TSH (anterior pituitary), or T3 & T4 (thyroid gland)
  26. What is hypothyroidism? How about hyperthyroidism?
    • Too little production of T4 & T3
    • Over production of T4 & T3
  27. Which condition will be responded by Calcitonin secretion?
    High blood Ca2+
  28. which condition will be responded by Parathyroid Hormone secretion?
    Low blood Ca2+
  29. Parathyroid Hormone
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Para thyroid glands
    • Target: kidneys, bones, and intestine
    • Effects: 1. Increase Ca2+ re-absorption in the kidneys 2. Increase osteoclast activity 3. Decrease osteoblast activity 4. Increase absorption of Ca2+ via the GI tract
  30. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Adrenal medulla
    • Target: All sells & tissues
    • Effects: 1. Sympathetic activity  2. Increase glycogen breakdown  3. Increase blood glucose
  31. Which hormone is a weak form of testosterone in woman & children?
    Androgen
  32. Androgen
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Zona reticularis (adrenal cortex)
    • Target: Bones & muscles (in woman and children)
    • Effects: 1. Bone growth  2. Muscle mass
  33. Which hormone is also called stress hormone and why?
    • Cortisol
    • Because people under stress secrete large amount of cortisol.
    • During long period of stress, a person can get sick easily because cortisol inhibit immune response.
  34. What is the general effect of glucocorticoids group?
    Effect glucose level
  35. Cortisol, corticosterone, and cortisone (Glucocorticoids group)
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Zona fasciculata (adrenal cortex)
    • Target: All cells & tissues
    • Effects: 1. increase protein breakdown  2. increase gluconeogenesis 3. increase lipolysis  4. decrease inflammation  5. inhibit immune response
  36. What effect is Mineralocorticoid group of hormone have on the body? Which hormone is a member of that group? Where it secreted from?
    • Help maintain salt balance.
    • Aldosterone
    • Zona glomerulosa
  37. Aldosterone
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Zona glomerulosa (adrenal cortex)
    • Target: 1. Kidneys 2. Salt receptors
    • Effects: 1. Increase re-absorption of Na+ (bye the kidneys) 2. Increase secrete K+ (by the kidneys) 3. Increase salt consumption
  38. Diabetes Mellitus - Type 2
    Cause?
    Treatment?
    • Cause: Target cannot response properly to insulin
    • Usually associate with obesity.
    • Treatment: diet, exercise, and medications
  39. Diabetes Mellitus - Type 1
    Cause?
    Effects?
    Treatment?
    • Cause: Inadequate production of insulin
    • Effects: Glucose cannot be removed from blood. As result, glucose in the filtrate will pull H2O by osmosis that will cause loss of a lot of water in urine.
    • Treatment: must receive exogenous insulin
  40. Inhibin In Female
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Ovarian follicle
    • Target: Anterior pituitary
    • Effects: Inhibit FSH release
  41. Progesterone
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Corpus luteum
    • Target: Most cells
    • Effects: 1. Prepare uterus for implantation  2. Develop and maintain secondary sexual characteristics
  42. Estrogen
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Ovarian follicle
    • Target: Most cells
    • Effects: 1. Develop & maturation of female genitalia 2. Develop and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics  3. Regulation of menstrual cycle
  43. Inhibin  In Male
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Nurse cells (in testis)
    • Target: Anterior pituitary 
    • Effects: Inhibit FSH release
  44. Testosterone
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Interstitial cells (in testis)
    • Target: Most cells
    • Effects: 1. Increase sperm production  2. Develop & maintain secondary sexual characteristics (Male genitalia)
  45. Melatonin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Pineal gland
    • Target: Brain
    • Effects: 1. Effect mood  2. Regulate circadian pattern  3. Effect reproduction (in animals)
  46. Diabetes Insipidus
    Cause?
    Effects?
    Cause: ADH production deficiency

    Effect: production of huge amount of very dilute urine

    Note: does not related to blood glucose!
  47. Glucagon
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Alpha cell (pancreatic islet)
    • Target: Mainly the liver (also muscle & adipose)
    • Effects: 1. glycogen breakdown  2. increase gluconeogenesis 3. increase blood glucose
  48. Insulin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Beta cells
    • Target: All cells (specially the liver, adipose, & muscle)
    • Effects: 1. increase glucose uptake by the cells  2. increase glucose use (by cells)  3. Up-regulation of glucose carriers  4. increase glycogen synthesis 5. increase adipose production  6. decrease blood glucose
  49. Pancreatic Polypeptide
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: F cells (pancreatic islet)
    • Target: Pancreas (pancreatic acini) & gallbladder
    • Effects: 1. Reduce pancreas secretion  2. reduce gallbladder secretion (bile)
  50. Somatostatin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effects?
    • Source: Delta cells (pancreatic islet)
    • Target: alpha & beta cells
    • Effects: inhibit production of insulin & glucagon
  51. Cyclic pattern of hormone secretion
    Hormone blood level is increase or decrease on regular intervals
  52. The posterior pituitary is also known as the_____________
    Neurohypophysis
  53. The anterior pituitary is also known as the___________
    Andenohypophysis
  54. What method the hypothalamus use to communicate with the pituitary gland
    • Regulatory hormones released via the hypophyseal system (part of the infundibulum) to the anterior pituitary
    • Neurons release neurohormons directly to the posterior pituitary
  55. List and understand the 3 ways that the hypothalamus will act as a master endocrine gland.
    • 1. Has neurons that release 2 hormones via the posterior pituitary (ADH & oxytocin)
    • 2. Has sympathetic neurons that control the adrenal medulla
    • 3. Release regulatory hormones to anterior pituitary
  56. Antagonistic effect
    Two hormones have an opposing effects
  57. Integrative effect
    Two hormones have different but complementary effect
  58. Permissive effect
    1st hormone is required for 2nd hormone to have an effect
  59. Additive effect
    Effect of combination of two hormones is grater then each one of them by itself
  60. How is up-regulation change the number of hormone receptors? How about down-regulation?
    • Up-regulation increases the number of hormone receptors.
    • Down-regulation decrease the number of hormone receptors.
  61. Acute pattern of hormone secretion
    Hormone blood level is increase or decrease in response to stimulus
  62. Chronic pattern of hormone secretion
    Hormone blood level is stable all the time
  63. What are the two possible locations of hormone receptors? What type of hormone will bind to each?
    H2O soluble hormones will bind to Plasma membrane receptors (in the cell membrane). 

    • Lipid soluble hormones will bind to Cytoplasm receptors (in the cytoplasm of the cell)
  64. How pheromones work?
    They released to the environment and act on  another member of the same species
  65. Where hormones released to?
    Blood stream
  66. How is neurohormone different from neurotransmitter?
    • Neurohormone; a chemical signal that secreted into the blood stream and travel do a different area in the body
    • Neurotransmitter; a chemical signal that released into synaptic cleft and into a second neuron
  67. Where paracrine signal will be released to? What type of cells will it bind to?
    • Released into the interstitial fluid (stay in the area that it released into)
    • Will bind to different cells of those it was released from
  68. Where autocrine signal will be released to? What type of cells will it bind to?
    • Release into interstitial fluid (stay in the area it released into)
    • Will bind to same type of cells as the cells it had released from.
  69. Which organs are secondary endocrine organs?
    Thymus, heart, gonads (testis & ovaries), kidneys, and digestive tract.
  70. Which endocrine organs are primary endocrine organs?
    Hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreatic islets, adrenal glands
  71. What symptoms are associate with hyperthyroidism?
    1. Increase metabolic rate 2. Increase body temperature 3. Increase appetite 4. loss of weight 5. Increase cutaneous glands secretion  6. Soft/smooth skin & hair  7. Diarrhea 8. Hyperactivity & insomnia 9. Warm flushed skin
  72. What symptoms are associate with hypothyroidism?
    1. Decrease metabolic rate  2. decrease appetite 3. gain weight 4. decrease in body temperature 5. decrease secretion of cutaneous glands 6. Dry skin and hair 7. brittle nails  8. constipation 9. apathy & drowsiness 10.cold dry skin 
  73. Understand the process that forms T3 & T4
    Iodine ions from our diet (in salt) taken up by the thyroid follicle → iodine ions activated by enzyme and bind to thyrosine (anomo acid in thyroglobulin Tg) → T3 & T4 are produced & stored in Tg → Tg containing T3 & T4 is pulled into the follicle cell → lysosomal enzyme separate T3 & T4 from Tg → T3 & T4 diffuse in the blood.
  74. What is oxytocin released in response to?
    • Uterine contraction
    • Nursing
    • Sexual arousal
  75. Which hypothalamic nucleus produce ADH? Which hypothalamic nuleus produce oxytocin?
    • ADH:Supraoptic nucleus
    • Oxytocin: paraventricular nucleus
  76. Resistin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Adipose tissue
    • Target: Liver & connective tissue
    • Effect: Reduce sensitivity to insulin (cause diabetes mellitus type 2)
    • More fat=more resistin=less sensitivity to insulin
  77. Leptin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Adipose cells
    • Target: Brain
    • Effect: Effect appetite (decrease appetite)
  78. Relaxin
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Placenta
    • Target: Pubic symphysis
    • Effect: Relaxation of connective tissue (during child birth)
  79. Human Chrorionic Hormone hCH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Placenta
    • Target: Corpus luteum
    • Effect: 1. Maintain pregnancy 2. Increase secretion of progesterone
  80. Prolactin Releasing Hormone PRH
    Source?
    Target?
    Effect?
    • Source: Hypothalamus
    • Target: Anterior pituitary gland
    • Effects: Increase release of prolactin

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