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  1. Composition of soil
    • 25 air
    • 25 water
    • 45 mineral matter
    • 5 organic matter
  2. MINERAL slice is made up of?
  3. Describe SAND
    • The largest of the three
    • coarse hard and round
    • Dont hold nutrients
    • Help aerate the soil
  4. Describe SILT
    • Finer than sand but still gritty
    • Like Talc Powder
  5. Describe CLAY
    • Invisible to the naked eye
    • Pack tightly together
    • makes gowing vegitable difficult
    • Does not drain doesnt allow air into soil
  6. What is Loam
    THE ideal mixture of SAND 40% SILT 40% and CLAY 20%
  7. What is compost or Humus
    • Organic matter in a purposeful state
    • we add this to our beds to improve their tilth and growth of benificial micro-organisms
  8. WHAT IS NPK and What is the numbering on the bags of fertilizer
    • NPK stands for Nitrogen Phosphorus and Patassium
    • The numbers is pounds per 100 pounds of fertilizer
  9. What does Nitrogen do
    helps production of protiens and the growth of dark, green leaves. (PHOTOSYNTHESIS)
  10. What does Phosphorus do
    • promotes developement of the stem, flower,  fruit and root.
    • plant vigor
    • Disease resistance
  11. What does potassium do?
    balances nitrogen and phosphorus and is good for plant health
  12. what does Calcium do
    Builds strong cell walls and promotes growth of Beneficial Bacteria
  13. Describe the positives and negatives of Synthetic Fertilizer
    • cheaper and stronger,
    • does not contain the trace nutrients upon which plants depend.
    • can make the soil inhospitable to beneficial soil microorganisms such as fungi and
    • bacteria
  14. Describe Organic Fertilizer
    • better for the soil food web
    • increases the soils ability to retain moisture and is more sustainable
  15. what is PH
    • Measure of soils acidity 
    • IDEAL ph is between 6.25 and 6.75
    • add lime to decrease acidity
  16. WHAT is Mulch
    • Straw leacs and compost
    • keeps away weeds and increases organic matter
  17. NAME some fall Crops

    Fall crios can withstand cold temps by growing thick leaves or gowing under ground
  18. FALL Gardening practices
    • Cover Cropping
    • In sity composting
    • Mulching path ways with leaves
    • proteching plants and soild with cloches
    • adding organic matter (compost leaves straw
    • rotate crops and restore nuitrients
  19. WINTER gardening practices
    • Ferilizing alliums in late jan/feb
    • fruit tree pruning
    • tool repair
    • compostin (in-situ and bins)
    • mulching pathways
    • Cloches
    • add compost and leaves to help drainage
  20. Examples of winter crops
    leeks, arugula, broccoli, collards, brussel sprouts, spinach, beets, swiss chard and others.
  21. COVER CROPS (reasons)
    • help restore nitrogen to the soil
    • can return to the soil to add organic matter
    • prevent erosion and loss of top soil
    • holds nutrients that could be lost in the rain
    • break up hard pan and improve soil structure drainage and water penetration
    • Fava Beans
    • crimson clover
    • autrian field peas
    • hairy vetch
    • rye
    • winter wheat
  23. what is a CSA
    • Comunity Supported Agriculture
    • direct relationship between farmsers and consumers.
    • both parties share risk and benefits
  24. what does organic mean
    • No GMOs
    • certified to meet USDA organic standards
    • with out pesticides, chem fertilizers or growth hormones
  25. What is tilth
    • refers to state of aggregation of soil
    • good tilth is full of beneficial bacteria and fungi
    • air water and roots can move freely
  26. TILTH as in Oregon Tilth Cerified Organic
    internationlly recognized that sets production standards and certifies organic food producers
  27. Brassicas
    • Cabbage Broccoli Mustard Cauliflower Kale
    • Collards Kohlrabi Radishes Arugula Turnips
  28. Alliums
    Onions Leeks Garlic Shallots
  29. Solonaceae (Night shade)
    • Tomatoes Potatoes Tomatillos Peppers
    • Eggplant
  30. Umbelliferae
    Carrots Parsley Fennel Cilantro Celery Parsnips Dill
  31. Chenapodiacea
    Beets Chard Spinach
  32. Compositae
    Lettuce Sunflowers Artichokes
  33. Curcunitaceae
    Squash Cucumber Melons Watermelon
  34. Favaceae
    Peas Beans
    • Quack Grass
    • Comfrey
    • Morning Glory
    • Horsetail
    • Apple Mint
    • Buttercup
    • Himalayan Blackberry
    • Borage
  36. Benefits of Compost
    • Introduces Beneficial micro organismas
    • help regulate soil PH and prevent fluctuations
    • provides micro and macro nutrients
    • improves soil structure Good Tilth
    • Improves Drainage and Moisture retention
  37. negative effects on COMPOST PILES
    • Too large - hard to turn
    • Maggots - carbon to nitrogen levels off too much artic add more brown matter
  38. In situ or sheet composting
    process of composting organic matter directly into the soil in place rather than a thermophylic pile
  39. Balance of Compost nitrogen to carbon
    • source of carbon -  dry leaves, straw, news paper, wood ash, saw dust
    • Nitrogen - kitchen scraps, green chop,comfrey, grass clippings, manure
Card Set
notes for URBAN farm at U of O
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