True or false: Since the nineteenth century, scientist have known that DNA is the molecule of heredity
A complex of rRNA and proteins called a(n)__________ is the physical location of protein synthesis.
Contains DNA and proteins?
A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a specific protein or RNA molecule?
A monomer of nucleic acids
What is any external agent that induces mutations?
Are alterations in DNA sequences
Do mutations have little to no effect on protein folding?
During.............., the information that is encoded in the DNA base sequence is copied into the complementary language of mRNA. Then, once the mRNA is produced and modified, a process called....... uses that information to assemble a sequence of amino acids.
List the translation events in order from occurring first to occurring last
1 The 5'end odf the mRNA molecule binds with the small ribosomal subunit.
2. The first tRNA binds to the start codon on the mRNA molecule.
3. The large ribosomal subunit binds to the small ribosomal aubunit.
4. The second tRNA molecule binds to the second codon on the mRNA molecule.
5. A peptide bond is formed between the two aminoacids.
6. The ribosome releases an empty tRNA
In prokaryotic cell, the genome usually consists in how many circular DNA molecule?
Just one circular DNA molecule
In addition to the genome found in the nucleos, where else we find genomes?
In the mitochondria and the chloroplast.
In eukaryotic cells how is the genome?
is usually divided up into multiple chromosomes
How is the size of the genomes?
It varies from organism to organism
Which enzyme builds the RNA chain during transcription?
how is composed the codons?
Of three mRNA bases
Is true or false that the tRNAs have sprecific complementary sequences that bind to them?
What is a translation?
Is "reading" of an mRNA to produce an amino acid sequence.
A single strand of DNA consists of a polymer of__________.
The flow of information from nucleic acids to_____is sometimes called the"Central dogma."
a. nucleic acids
b. the nucleus
Steps to create a transgenic organism.
1. Acquire source DNA and cloning vector
2. Cut source and vector DNA with the same restriction enzyme.
3. Mix donor DNA and vector DNA and seal segmente together
4. Insert recominant DNA into a recipient cell.
Hershey and Chase found that _______ rahter that ______, was the molecule of heredity.
What do Hershey and chase's experimental design used to infect bacteria in order to determine the chemical nature of the genetic information?
What did Hershey and Chase used to label the protein in order to track the movement of the protein during the infection?
They used a radioactive sulfur.
After infection with the bacteria, what Hershey and Chase used to separate the viral coats from the bacterial cells?
Used a blender.
Who would bind to and "read" an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis?
In a RNA molecule, a(n)_______ is a genetic "code word" that corresponds to one aminoacid.
Two funtions of ribosomal RNA
Help align the ribosome with the mRNA to prepare for translation
Catalyze the formation of bonds between aminoacids in the devoloping protein
During the tewntieth century, which of the following was shown to be the information molecule of heredity?
What was the contribution of Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin MacLeod?
Discovered that it was DNA that could trasform R bacteria into manufacturing a smooth coat.
What was the contribution of Alfred Hershey and MArtha Chase?
Conclusively showed that DNA was the molecule of heredity because radioactively-labelec DNA, not protein, entered bacterial cells and directed them to produce viruses.
What was the contribution of Archibald Garrod?
Discovered that people with "inborn errors of metabolism" lacked certain enzymes.
What was the contribution of Frederick Griffith?
Discovered that one strain of bacteria could "transform" another by inducing it to display new traits.
All the generic material that is within a cell is called?
DNA has a __________helical structure consisting of two intertwining trands of _________.
A (n) __________ is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a specific protein or RNA molecule.
Within the DNA double heliz, the so called backbone is composed of ___________sugars alternating with phosphates joined together by covalent bonds.
In a(n) ___________ repeat mutation, the number of copies of 3 or 4 nucleotide sequence increases over several generations.
__________ mutations do not pass from generation to generation because they occur in non-sex cells.
Which mutatition can be passed from one generation to the next?
True or False: In Griffith's experiment with Streptococcus pneumonie and mice, he found that one strain of heat-killed bacteria had the ability to trasfer its traits to another bacterium of a different strain.
a(n) __________mutation is one that occurs in the cells that give rise to sprem or egg.
Although the human genome includes approximately 25,000 __________, human cells can produce some 400,000 different ________
protein encoding genes; proteins
Modern scientists can splice DNA from different species together to produce what is referred to as _______DNA.
One major problem with gene therapy is finding ways to deliver the ____________gene into the cell that needs to be corrected.