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Describe the Adrenal blood supply:
- Superiorly - branches from inferior phrenic artery
- Middle - aorta
- Inferorly - branches from renal artery
- Left adrenal vein + inferior phrenic vein ---> left renal vein
- Right adrenal vein -> inferior vena cava
What enzyme converts norepinephrine to epinephrine?
What is the rate limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis?
Describe the catecholamine synthesis pathway:
- 1. L-tyrosine converted into dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) by tyrosine hydroxylase
- 2. L-dopa converted into dopamine by dopa decarboxylase
- 3. Dopamine converted into norepinephrine by dopamine β-hydroxylase
- 4. Norepinephrine converted into epinephrine by PNMT
Describe the layers of the adrenal gland and their products:
- Adrenal Cortex (derived from mesoderm)
- zona glomerulosa - mineralcorticosteroids (aldosterone)
- zona fasiculata - corticosteroids
- zona reticularis - sex steroids
- Medulla (derived from ectodermal neural crest cells)
- composed of chromaffin cells, innervated by sympathetic fibers from the sympathetic chain - secrete norepinephrine & epinephrine (NE -->Epi by PNMT found only in adrenal medulla)
Secretion of Aldosterone controlled by:
- Increased by:
- Potassium - increases transcription of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)
- Angiotensin II - increases transcription of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - stimulates earlier pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, increases aldosterone secretion modestly (by 10-20% over baseline)
- Inhibited by:
- Atrial natriuretic factor
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