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a material that poses an unreasonable risk to the health and safety and the environment if not properly controlled
How many mazmat chemical are registered for use?
How many hazmat chemicals are added to the list every year?
What is hazardous waste?
- what remains after a process of the material and it is no longer usable
- waste = unusable or unsellable
Who regulates and defines the training levels for hazmat?
List the levels of training/certifications in order for hazmat personnel.
- Hazmat IC
Who has hazmat awareness and what can they do with it?
- individuals likely to discover or witness the release of a hazardous material
- awareness lvl can: recognize a potential hazmat incident, isolate the area, and call for assistance
- these ppl take protective actions
Who has hazmat ops and what can they do with it?
- individuals who are part of the initial response for the purpose of protecting ppl, property, or the environment (this is us)
- ops lvl can: recognize a potential hazmat incident, isolate the area, take defensive actions without touching the product, and enter the hot zone for life/safety rescue
- these ppl take defensive actions
What hazmat chemicals are an exception for individuals with hazmat ops level training?
common materials with known risks, such as petroleum, antifreeze, etc
Who has hazmat technician and what can they do with it?
- personnel who respond to releases for the purpose of stopping the release
- tech lvl can: enter the contaminated area "hot zone" wearing the highest lvl of protection, plug/patch, control/containment, hazmat removal/cleanup
- these ppl take offensive actions
Who has hazmat specialist and what can they do with it?
- FFs who have received more specialized training
- specialist lvl are: trained for multi-agency hazmat incidents, can command complex incidents
How often are hazmat refreshers required?
What are the main NFPAs for hazmat?
- NFPA 471: recommended practices for responding to hazmat incidents
- NFPA 472: Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction
- NFPA 473: Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Distruction
What is the NFPA?
a body that issues consensus-based standards
What levels of training does the NFPA control?
- NFPA does not cover Specialist or IC
What is SARA?
- Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
- indicated that workers handling hazmat should have a minimum amount of training
- established that FDs and communities are to obtain info about hazmat in their communities
- created SARA Title III - Emergency Planning Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA)
- created the State Emergency Response Commission and local emergency planning committees
What is EPCRA?
- Emergency Planning Community Right to Know Act
- requires that all businesses that handle chemicals must report the storage type, quantity, and storage methods to the FD and local emergency planning committee (who collect materials stored, and MSDSs)
What are MSDSs?
- Material Safety Data Sheets
- detailed profile of a single chemical or mixture of chemicals
- provided by the manufacturer and/or supplier of the chemical
When does hazmat response begin?
before the alarm sounds - have a planned response
What should be included in a hazmat preincident plan?
- identification of the threats that exist in the community and how to respond to them
- planning on: life safety, fire/explosion, leak contamination, vapor release, evacuation, environmental impact
What is a physical change in matter?
- changes due to heat, cold, or pressure
- actual chemical makeup remains the same but the state of the matter is different
What is a chemical change in matter?
- changes due to a chemical reaction or the application of heat
- usually accompanied by a release of energy
- when the chemical reaction is complete, the substance is longer the same as it was
What is the boiling point?
the temp at which a liquid will continually give off vapors in sustained amounts and, if held at that temp long enough, will eventually turn completely into a gas
Why are flammable liquids with low boiling points dangerous?
because they produce large volumes of flammable vapor at relatively low temps
What is the flash point?
- the temp at which a liquid will give off enough vapor to ignite if subjected to an ignition source
- only deals with liquids
What is the ignition temperature (or autoignition temperature)?
temperature at which an external ignition source is not needed to cause vapors to combust
What is the flammable range?
the range of mixtures of fuel and air that will support combustion if subjected to an ignition source
What is vapor density?
- the weight of an airborne concentration (vapor/gas) compared to an equal volume of dry air
- vapor density of air at sea level is 1.0
- vapor density below 1.0 will float above air
- vapor density above 1.0 will drop below air
What are all the gasses that are lighter than air?
- the acronym is 4H MEDIC ANNA
- H - Hydrogen
- H- Helium
- H - Hydrogen Cyanide
- H - Hydrogen Fluoride
- M - Methane Ethylene
- D - Diborane
- I - Illuminating Gas (natural gas)
- C - Carbon Monoxide
- A - Acetylene
- N - Neon
- N - Nitrogen
- A - Ammonia
What is vapor pressure?
- the pressure exerted by its vapor until the liquid and vapor are in equilibrium
- VP is directly related to temp
- relationship to a liquid's VP to atmospheric pressure will dictate whether a liquid gives off vapors if released from its container
What is the 1300 rule?
if you take the vapor pressure, and multiply it by 1300 (the max concentration we would ever expect to find it), if this number is higher than the health standard for risk of respiratory exposure, than we are at risk and need to begin evacuation
What does BLEVE stand for?
boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
What is specific gravity?
- the ratio of a liquids density to that of water
- SG of water is 1.0
- substance will sink if its SG is greater than water
- substance will float if SG is greater than water - most flammable liquids have a SG of less than 1.0 (oil floats on water)
What is water solubility?
- the ability of a substance to dissolve in water
- not all chemicals mix well with water - some react violently (any alkalies - lithium, potassium, sodium; and any compound that have those same properties - alkalines - magnesium, calcium), some are only partially soluble
What is corrosivity?
the ability of material to cause damage (on contact) to tissues (skin, eyes) or corrode metal
How is corrosivity measured?
Where are acids on the pH scale?
- 0 - 6.9
- anything less than 2.5 strong acid (corrosive)
Where are bases on the pH scale?
- 7.1 - 14.0
- anything greater than 12.5 is a strong base (caustic)
What is neutral on the pH scale?
What are some of the toxic and carcinogenic products of combustion that are found in fire smoke?
- Carbon Monoxide
- Cyanide compounds
- Hydrochloric Acid
- ....hundreds more
How many electrons does it take to equal the size of one proton?
What is the definition of radiation?
energy transmitted though space in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles
What are the health hazards of radiation dependent on?
the amount of radiation absorbed through exposure time and/or the intensity of the source
True or False: A radioactive isotope has a stable configuration of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom
false - it is unstable
What is radioactivity?
a natural and spontaneous process by which unstable atoms of an element decay to a different state and emit or radiate excess energy in the form of particles or waves (when a decaying particle is getting rid of electrons - this is a beta particle, 2 protons and 2 neutrons -this is an alpha particle, this is a release of radioactive energy)
What are alpha particles?
- stems from electrically charged particles (2 protons and 2 neutrons) given off by the nucleus of an atom
- can't travel very far cause they're huge
- FFs can be protected by staying several feet away and wearing SCBA or N95 mask
- internal hazard only
What are beta particles?
- greater health hazard than alpha particles
- considered ionizing radiation
- can penetrate skin and be inhaled (internal and external hazard)
- most solid objects stop beta particles
What are gamma rays?
- most energetic form of radiation
- can pass through solid objects and living organisms without difficulty
- ionizing radiation
- can be deadly depending on dose
- PPE and SCBA do nothing for protection
- this is pure energy, not a particle
- internal and external hazard
What is ionizing radiation?
radiation composed of particles that individually carry enough kinetic energy to liberate and electron from an atom or molecule, and thus ionizing it
How do protect yourself from radiation?
- limit your exposure time
- increase your distance from the source
- protect yourself with shielding