Thurs theory chapter 5

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herangelwings
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248300
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Thurs theory chapter 5
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2013-11-22 10:58:50
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IBS 102
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chapter 5
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  1. refers to stomach and intestines
    gastrointestinal (GI) tract
  2. refers to the function of the tubelike nature of the majority of the digestive systems, which starts at the mouth and continues in varying diameters to the anus
    alimentary canal
  3. four coats/tunics of the alimentary canal
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  4. inner tunic. secretes gastric juices, absorbs nutrients, and protects the tissue through the production of mucus
    mucosa
  5. underneath the tunica mucosa. holds blood, lymphatic and nervous tissues that serve to nourish, protect, and communicate
    submucosa
  6. tunic. two layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that contract and relax around the tubein a wavelike movement called peristalsis
    muscularis
  7. wavelike movement in digestive tract
    peristalsis
  8. outer tunic covering that serves to bind a structure together
    adventitia
  9. tunic within the peritoneal cavity that emits a slippery fluid to counteract friction
    serosa

    (syn) visceral peritoneum
  10. rich vascular membrane which is an extension of the visceral peritoneum
    mesentery
  11. chewing
    mastication
  12. swallowing
    deglutition
  13. upper lip
    labium superioris
  14. lower lip
    labium inferioris
  15. margins between the lip and surrounding skin
    vermilion borders
  16. small fold of tissue on the inside of each lip that restrains its movement
    frenulum
  17. small vertical depression above the upper lip
    philtrum
  18. glands that secrete mucus into the oral cavity
    • buccal
    • molar
    • palatine
    • labial
  19. glands located throughout the inner cheek wall
    buccal
  20. glands on the cheek near the back teeth
    molar glands
  21. glands located inside the lips and surrounding the mouth
    labial glands
  22. glands that surround the soft roof in the back of the mouth
    palatine glands
  23. thousand of tiny projections on tongue
    papillae
  24. nervelike cells in between papillae
    taste buds
  25. taste buds have receptors for the five known taste which are
    • sour
    • sweet
    • salty
    • bitter
    • savory (umami)
  26. tag of flesh that hangs down from the medial surface of the soft palate
    uvula
  27. thin hard outer covering of the tooth
    enamel
  28. calcified second layer of the tooth
    dentin
  29. center of the tooth with a blood and nerve supply
    pulp
  30. bonelike substance that covers the part of the tooth that is below the gums
    cementum
  31. the visible enamel
    crown
  32. area of the tooth below the gums
    root
  33. three salivary glands
    • parotid
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  34. salivary gland near the ear
    parotid
  35. salivary gland under the lower jaw
    submandibular
  36. salivary gland under the tongue
    sublingual
  37. throat
    pharynx
  38. three main parts of the throat
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • hypopharynx/laryngopharynx
  39. most superior part of the pharynx, located behind the nasal cavity
    nasopharynx
  40. the part of the throat directly adjacent to the  oral cavity
    oropharynx
  41. part of the throat directly belower  the oropharynx
    hypopharynx/laryngopharynx
  42. muscular, mucus-lined, approx 12-inch tube that extends from the throat to the stomach
    esophagus
  43. the muscle that must relax before the food enters the stomach (known by 3 names)
    • lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
    • gastroesophageal sphincter
    • cardiac sphincter
  44. ringlike muscles that appear throughout the digestive and other body systems
    sphincters
  45. double-sided membrane that holds many of the organs inside the abdominopelvic cavity
    peritoneum
  46. the outer side of the membrane (peritoneum) near the body wall
    parietal peritoneum
  47. the inner side of the peritoneum near the organs
    visceral peritoneum
  48. location aorta, kidneys, ureters, duodenum, and pancreas are outside and behind the peritoneum
    retroperitoneum
  49. two main regions of the peritoneal cavity
    • greater sac
    • lesser sac
  50. two seperate folds forming the lesser sac
    omenta

    (plu) omentum
  51. mixture of swallowed food, gastric juices, and hydrochloric acid
    chyme
  52. three main sections of the stomach
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus/gastric antrum
  53. the portion of the stomach that surrounds the esphagogastric connection
    cardia
  54. ridges/wrinkles on the inside of the stomach when empty
    rugae

    (sing) ruga
  55. first part of the small intestines
    duodenum
  56. second part of the small intestines
    jejunum
  57. distal part of the small intestines
    ileum
  58. multiple circular folds in the small intestines
    plicae
  59. tiny projections which contain blood capillaries that absorb the products of carbohydrate and protien digestion
    villi

    (sing) villus
  60. primary function of the large intestines
    elimination of waste products from the body
  61. the exit from the small intestine and the entrance to the colon
    ileocecal valve
  62. first part of the large intestines
    cecum
  63. wormlike appendage dangling from cecum
    vermiform appendix

    (pl) appendices
  64. whatever has not been absorbed by the small intestines
    feces
  65. marks the beginning of the last straight part of the large intestines
    retrosigmoid
  66. the accessory organs are
    • gallbladder
    • liver
    • pancreas
  67. how many lobes does the liver have?
    4
  68. substance formed by the liver which emulsifies, or mechanically breaks down, fats into smaller particles so that htey can be chemically digested
    bile
  69. bile is composed of
    • bilirubin
    • cholesterol
  70. the waste product formed by the normal breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells at the end of their life span
    bilirubin
  71. a fatty substance found only in animal tissues
    cholesterol
  72. carries bile to and from the gallbladder
    cystic duct
  73. hepatic and cystic ducts merge here which empties into the duodenum
    common bile duct
  74. small sac found on the underside of the right lobe of the liver. where bile is stored
    gallbladder
  75. gland located in the upper left quadrant that assists in digestion of carbohydrates, protiens, and lipids
    pancreas
  76. hormone that causes gallbladder contraction
    choecystokinin

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