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What is gait?
a particular way or manner of moving on foot
What 4 things does walking require the neuromuscular system to accomplish? (4)
-generate power to redirect and advance the body
-maintain balance during single leg stance
-swing the leg opposite the stance leg
-support body weight without collapsing
what are the 4 steps in GAIT?
-right foot strike
-right toe off
how many steps are in a stride?
What does an EMG tell us?
measures muscle activity
*tells us when a muscle is on of off
What does EMG stand for?
what are the 3 tasks for the gait cycle?
-single limb support
what are the 2 periods in the weight acceptance task?
what are the 2 periods in the singe limb support?
what are the 4 periods of limb advancement task?
Weight acceptance-initial contact) what do the ankle dorsiflexors prevent?
Weight acceptance-initial contact) what do the hip extensors do? (3)
-decelerate the thigh
-aids in knee extension and
Weight acceptance-initial contact) what do knee flexors and extensors do?
stabilizes knee in preparation for loading
weight acceptance-loading response) what do knee extensors do? (2)
-accept weight of the body
-extend the knee
weight acceptance-loading response) what do the hip abductors do?
-stabilizes the pelvis in the frontal plane
single limb support-midstance) what happens to the body mass?
it is carried forward by momentum
single limb support-midstance) what do the ankle plantarflexors do?
-stabilizes the knee and preserves momentum
*isometric or concentric
single limb support- terminal stance) what do the ankle flexors do?
accelerate body mass
**flexor hallucis longus
single limb support- terminal stance) what does the iliopsoas do?
-small bursts may occur leading into the unloading response of preswing
Limb advancement-Preswing) What do the hip flexors do?
prepare for swing
*swing limb behaves like a passive pendulum
**iliopsoas, rectus femoris
Limb advancement-terminal swing phase) what do knee flexors do?
Limb advancement-terminal swing phase) what do hip extensors do>?
Limb advancement-terminal swing phase) what do dorsiflexors do?
prepares for foot contact
Limb advancement-terminal swing phase) what do knee extensors do?
prepares for foot contact
Heel strike) which 2 are the major muscles used on this phase?
-extensor digitorum longus
Heel strike) what is the role during gait?
prevent foot slap
stance phase) which 4 muscles are involved?
-quadriceps femoris and hamstrings
-gluteus medius and minimus
stance phase) what is the role during gait? (2)
-accepts weight and extends the knee
toe off)which are the 2 main muscles involved?
-flexor hallucis longus
toe off) role during gait?
accelerates body forward
swing phase)major muscle used?
swing phase) role during gait?
accelerated thigh forward