Basic Mycology

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ucstudent01
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248381
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Basic Mycology
Updated:
2013-11-22 17:17:32
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Basic mycology
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Basic mycology
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  1. Define: a fungal organism
    A group of non motile eukaryotic organisms that have definite cell walls and are devoid of chlorophyll , and reproduce by means of spores (aka conidia).
  2. Define: Heterotrophic
    Use a variety of things for nourishment.
  3. Describe Capsule
    Polysaccharide

    Antiphagocytic (virulence factor) - prevents human phagocytes from destroying fungi.

    • *mostly yeast -
    •  C. neoformans = encapsulated yeast
  4. Describe fungal cell wall
    Antigenic

    • Multi-layered:
    •  ~ Polysaccharides (90%)
    •  ~ Chitin
    •  ~ Proteins & glycoproteins (10%)

    Provides shape and rigidity
  5. Describe Cell Membrane
    • Bilayered phospholipids
    • Sterols (ergosterol fungal vs cholesterol mamilian)

    • Functions:
    • *Protects cytoplasm
    • *Regulates intake of nutrients
    • *Facilitates capsule and cell wall synthesis
  6. Define: Septate
    Just describes the division in the hyphae
  7. Define: Sparsely septate
    Is occasional division in the hyphae
  8. Define: Aseptate
    No speration what so ever in the hyphae
  9. Name 2 mycelium and their discription
    Vegetative: Truns downward buried into the mat (intertwined hyphae).

    Aerial: Rises up from the mat
  10. Define Moulds
    Obligate hyphae
  11. Yeast are what
    Unicellular, budding
  12. Describe dimorphic
    Two bodies or forms

    ie. When they are both yeast and molds

    • Molds at colder temp 
    • Yeast at warmer temp

    penecillium marneffei
  13. Define Perfect fungi
    Sexual stage is known
  14. Fungi Imperfecti
    No known sexual stage
  15. Define Conidia
    Reproductive structures produced by an asexual mode
  16. Define Spore
    Reproductive structures produced sexually and the asexual reproductive cells of the Zygomycetes.
  17. Asexual Reproduction:

    Define Conidiophore
    Structure that supports conidia
  18. Asexual Reproduction:

    Name 3 different types of conidiophore and what they are produced by.
    1. Anelloconidia: Produced by anellides

    2. Phialoconidia: phialide

    3. Poroconidia: pores
  19. Define Sporangium
    Saclike structure where sporangiospores are formed (Zygomycetes).
  20. Asexual Reproduction:

    Define Arhroconidia
    Directly from hyphae by modification of cell wall
  21. Asexual Reproduction:  Define

    Blastoconidia
    Budding of cell (mother & daughter)
  22. Asexual Reproduction:Define

    Chlamydoconidia
    Directly from hyphae (swelling)
  23. Sexual Reproduction: Define

    Ascospore
    Sexual spre formed in a sclike structure following meisosis
  24. Sexual Reproduction: Define

    Xygospore
    Round, thick walled spre produced in a saclike structure by fusion of two hyphal tips.
  25. Sexual Reproduction: Define


    Basidiospore
    Spre formed in a club shaped reproductive structure following meiosis.
  26. Define Umbiquitous
    Enviromental saprobes
  27. Define: 

    Monomorphs
    Same structural characteristics under all conditions
  28. Describe 

    Supeficial mycoses
    Infection of outer dead layers of skin

    No host defense stimulation
  29. List some superficial mycoses infections
    • Exophiala
    • Malassezia
    • Piedraia
    • Trichosporon
  30. Describe 

    Dermatophytic mycoses
    Skin, hair, nails

    Produce metabolites to irritate
  31. List some dermatophytic infections
    • Epidermophyton
    • Mocrosporum
    • Trichophyton
  32. Describe:

    Subcutaneous Mycoses
    Muscle, bone, connective tissues

    Traumatic inoculation (scratches, thorns, etc)
  33. List some subcutaneous infections
    • Cladosprium
    • Exophiala
    • Pseudoallescheria
    • Phialophora
    • Sporothrix
  34. Describe:

    Systemic Mycoses
    Any tissue

    thermal dimorphs & yeast
  35. List some systemic fungal infections
    • Blastomyces
    • coccidioides
    • histoplasma
    • paracoccidioides

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