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What was the deadliest wildfire in US history?
Peshtigo Fire of 1871
What is fire?
the rapid combination of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen and produces flame, heat and light
What makes up the fire triangle?
What are the three phases of a wildfire?
What occurs during preignition?
fuel achieves high temperatures and low water content
preheating and pyrolysis
How do wildfires benefit soils?
increase nutrient content
kill off microorganisms
What can kill a fire?
water- removes heat
fire lines- remove fuel
blankets- remove oxygen
What processes produce the fuel gasses during preignition?
What are the 3 types of fires?
Describe ground fires.
move slowly along under ground surfacemostly smolder
What occurs during combustion?
preignition absorbs energy and combustion releases that energyexternal reactions liberate heat and light
What are the types of combustion?
What occurs during extinction?
no longer heat or fuel to sustain fire
Describe surface fires.
occur on the ground surface
spread more quickly
Describe crown fires.
moves along the tops of trees
driven by strong winds and steep slopes
independent of ground fires
densely populated tree areas
How do wildfires benefit plants and animals?
reduce number of species of plants
trigger release of seeds in some species
remove surface litter for grasses
animals benefit from increased plant life & diversity
How many fires occurred in Yellowstone during 1988?
How does Yellowstone handle wildfires?
natural burns are allowed in all wilderness areas because they benefit the environment
What is fire management?
deciding when fires should be allowed to burn and when they should be suppressed
What are some components of fire management?