History elective 2013 Sem 2
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"Khmer Rouge" means?
Khmer Rouge is the name given to? and in what year
The left wing in Cambodian politics by King Norodom Sihanouk in the 1950s.
What are the aims of the Khmer Rouge?
They aimed to "purify" the Khmer race and create an absolutely "equal" society.
How did the Khmer rouge fulfil their aim?
The Khmer Rouge began by emptying all Cambodian urban centers of their population, abolishing banking, finance and currency, outlawing all religions, reorganising traditional kinship sytems into a communal order, and eliminating private property so that even personal hygiene supplies were communal
How did the Khmer rouge begin obtaining their aims and when?
On April 17th, 1975, the Khmer Rouge armies defeated the Lon Nol regime and took the capital, Phnom Penh, immediately dispersing almost all of its more than 2 million inhabitants to a life of hard agricultural labor in the countryside. Other cities and towns were also evacuated.
What did the Khmer rouge rename the country?
Democratic Ka,puchea (DK)
How many people were killed and what kinds of people were killed?
Almost 1.7 million Cambodians were killed, including members of minority and religious groups, people suspected of disagreeing with the party, intellectuals, merchants, and bureaucrats.
What happened to the millions of Cambodians who were not killed?
They were forcibly relocated, deprived of food, tortured, or sent into forced labor.
By 1979, what percentage of the population had perished? (rural + urban)
15 percent of the rural Khmer population and 25 percent of the urban Khmer population.
What happened in the second half of 1978? and where? and how many people were killed?
The most horrific slaughter took place in a purge of the Eastern Zone on the Vietnam border, where resistence to the Khmer rouge was strong. At least 250 000 people were killed in the worst single massacre of the Khmer Rouge period.
How was religion affected by the khmer Rouge regime?
Buddhism was completely suppressed from 1975 to 1979; many monks were defrocked and sent into forced labor, while others were killed.
What neighbouring countries did the Khmer Rouge also attack?
Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos in an attempt to reclaim territories lost by Cambodia many centuries before.
When did the Khmer Rouge's rule end and how?
When a faction of Khmer Communists rebelled in the Eastern Zone in May 1978, Pol Pot's armies were unable to quickly crush them. Fighting continued until January 1979, when a Vietnamese invasion swept the Khmer Rouge from power. Vietnam installed surviving Khmer defectors at the head of a new goverment.
During the 1980s who was recognised as Cambdia's government?
The Khmer Rouge's Democratic Kampuchea retained international recognition as Cambodia's government, and occupied Cambodia's seat in the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN).
What happened to the Khmer Rouge's politics in the 1990s?
They became increasingly marginal in Cambodian politics.
what did Cambodia's warring factions do in 1991?
They signed a peace treaty, which the Khmer rouge later repudiated (rejected).
What happened after Cambodia's elections were held in 1993?
No foreign countries continued to recognise DK as Cambodia's legal government. The DK lost its UN seat as well as most of its sources of international aid.
What happened to Pol Pot in 1997?
The Khmer Rouge denounced (publicly declared to be wrong and evil) Pol Pot in a show trial and placed him under house arrest.
When did Pol Pot die? and during this time, what had happened?
In April 1998, Pol Pot died shortly before the Cambodian government asserted that its troops had captured the remaining Khmer Rouge forces.
What was Tuol Sleng?
Tuol Sleng was once a highschool in Phom Penh. It then became a shrine, a monument to the dead and an archive of Khmer Rouge photographs, false confessions written by prisoners and documents relating to the Pol Pot regime. Between 1975-1978 Tuol sleng was the headquarters of santebal, the Khmer Rouge's secret service. They wree the main interrogation centres.
Who were the main leaders of Khmer Rouge?
Saloth Sar, Nivon Chea, Chhit choeun, Khiell Samphan, Leng Sary, Son Sen, yung yat leng Thirith and Ke Pauk
belief in one's country and making that country
The system of government in which power and all aspects of state affairs are in the hands of one party. Where no opposition is tolerated- total control over all aspects of life.
During what year and which coutries were apart of the Treaty of Versailles?
In 1919, the leaders of France, Britain, America came to Versailles I France to determine Germany's punishment.
Why did the Nazi's succeed in rising to power?
- 1. Signed the Peace Treaty
- 2. The government were blamed for losing
- 3. The Great Depression --> Germany's economic problem
- 4. Lack of Democratic government
- 5. Popularity of campaigning of Hitler/leadership
- 6. Gave the people someone to blame/hate
- -Slavic pepole
Examples of totalitarianism
- -Freedom of speech
- -ownership of businesses
- -social life -curfew
What happend on the Night of the Long Knives?
- The Night of the Long Knives was an event that happened in June of 1934. It was a historical moment that resulted in SA leaders dying and an oath being taken form Hitler's army to abide and be loyal to his command.
- On June 29th-June 30th 1934, units of the SS arrested the leaders of the SA and other political opponents.
- An estimated amount of more than seventy seven men were executed on charges of treason. Rohm, the SA leader was shot as a result. This is signficant in Hitler's consolidation of power because he successfully made the army make an oath of loyalty so they would work for him and he spinned the story around to make it sound like he was doing something good for the country by saving Germany from "men who had become a danger to the unity of the German people".
Describe what the Reichstag Fire event was and when it happened
- On 27th February 1933, one week before the elction the Reichstag building in Berlin burned down.
- The Nazis accused the communists of setting fire to the reichstag and threatening to overthrow the state. The Nazis took advantage of this to spread fear about a communist uprising.
- President Hindenburg issues article 48 of the Weimar constitution: a state of Emergency- civil liberties are.
- 1. Discrimination --> laws came into effect
- 2. Vilification --> propganda
- 3. separation --> ghettos
- 4. Eliminatin --> holocaust
What happened between 1933-1935?
Laws were passed that removed Jews from the Civil service, education, health and legal system.
Describe what happened with the boycott of the Jewish shops
- In April 1933, the Nazi government approved a boycott of Jewish businesses.
- the SA painted slogans on Jewish businesses and prevented Germans from entering these businesses.
- The star of David was painted in yellow and black across thousands of doors and windows
- The boycott lasted for one day and was ignored by the majority of Germans
What were the Nuremberg laws? And when did they come into place?
- In September 1935, this campaign against the Jews intensified. The purpose was to isolate the Jews. They were announced at the annual Nuremberg rally.
- 1. The law of the protection of German blood and honor.
- This stated that marriage between Jews and Aryans were forbidden and any sexual relation were also forbidden. Jews who were already married to Germans had to get divorced.
- 2. The Reich Citizenship law
- Citizens of the Reich were those only of German blood. Jews were now not considered citizens of Germany.
Who are Jews?
A Jew was anyone who had descended from at least three grandparents who are racially fully Jewish.
in 1937, the campaign against the Jews resumed and from there what happened?
- Jews were forced from economic life in a policy known as Aryanisation.
- Jews were banned from theatres, restaurants, and parties.
- Jews were required to have 'J' stamped on passports.
What was the Kristallnacht event? and when did it occur?
- 9th November 1938- the Nazis launched a systematic attack (program) on Jews in Germany.
- Kristallnacht: the night of broken glass- the glass that littered the streets the next morning
- SA and SS troops violently smashed and burnt Jewish property and brutalised Jews.
- 90 people were killed. 1000 jewish shops and businesses were looted. 191 synagogues burnt down.
- 20 000 Jewish men and boys taken to concentration camps.
- Jewish community had to pay 30 million Reich marks to clean up and also a 1 billion RM fine.
How was anti-Jewish propaganda spread and what were they?
- The propaganda portrayed them as traitors to the country and in partnership with the Bolsheviks (Germany's great enemy).
- They were blamed for military defeat in 1918 and for all of Germany's economic problems.
- Depicted as the threat to racial purity.
- Germany children were indoctrinated through their school curriculum.
- Magazines and the media helped as well
Largest ghetto in Poland? and how many were there?
The Warsaw ghetto, where more than 40 000 Jews were crowded
Describe the 'Final solution'
- In 1941 Special Units within the SS were formed for the sole purpose of killing Jews. They were known as the Einsatzgruppen and operated with absolute authority.
- Large numbers of Jews were shot and buried in mass graves.
- Altogether the SS alone were responsible for the deaths of 1.4 million Jews and Russians.
- The final solution was referred to as the extermination of the Jews.
- No official signed document
- No document approved by Hitler
How were the people killed in concentration camps?
Many people were gassed with Zyklon B. SS officers told the victims they were to take a shower and undergo delousing. The victims would undress, walk in to the gas chamber and were killed.
What was taken from the victims?
glasses, artificial limbs, jewelry and hair were removed as well as dental fillings so that gold could be melted down.
At Auschwitz, when did it become a prisoner camp and when did it become a death camp?
- It operated as a prisoner camp in May of 1940
- and a death camp in 1942
When did Hitler die and how?
On the 30th of April, 1945 Hitler shot himself in the head
When did the German forces surrender?
4th May 1945,the war in Berlin had ended
What happened to Germany and the leading Nazis after the war?
- The first trials at Nuremberg were for 24 senior Nazis beginning on the 18th October 1945.
- Count 1- conspiracy to wage Aggressive war
- count 2- Crimes against peace
- Count 3- War crimes
- count 4- crimes against humanity
And so began the process of denazification :D
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