biology test

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biology test
2013-11-22 00:17:19

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  1. The breakdown of sugar to be used for energy is called
  2. The process where the product of glycolysis(pyruvic acid) is metabolized in the absence of oxygen is
  3. The final products of glycolysis that are in turn used for respiration are called
    pyruvic acid
  4. This is the type of fermentation where the muscle become sore from build up
  5. This cycle is the source of all the carbon dioxide you exhale
    Krebs Cycle
  6. Once glycolysis is complete about ____ % of the chemical energy stored in glucose is still unused
  7. All of the following are electron carriers in the Krebs cycle except 

    a. NAD+ 
    b. FAD+
    c. NADP
    NADP is electron carrier for photosynthesis
  8. The final process in cellular respiration in which the majority of ATP are produced is called
    Electron Transport Chain
  9. Which identifies the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

    A. Both processes generate energy for cell use
    B. the products of one process are used as reactants by the other process
    C. The reactants of one process are also the reactants of the other process
    D. Both processes release energy for cell use 
    B. the product of one process are used as reactants  by the other process
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. When oxygen is not present during glycolysis, the cell undergoes ________?
  11. During Cell aerobic respiration _____ ATP are produced total
  12. The net result of glycolysis is 2 ATP molecule and 2 _____ molecules
    pyruvic acid
  13. reaction that takes place within the photosynthetic membranes found in the chloroplasts
    • Photosynthesis
    • Light reaction
    • Dark reaction
  14. This reaction produces glucose
    Dark reaction
  15. This reaction is important to baker and brewers
    Alcoholic Fermentation
  16. This reaction is an aerobic process
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain
    • Respiration
  17. This reaction makes high-energy compounds, ATP and NADPH
    Light reaction
  18. This reaction produces the carbon dioxide you exhale
    Krebs Cycle
  19. This reaction produces energy, carbon dioxide and water
  20. This reaction causes a painful, burning sensation in your muscles
    Lactic Acid Fermentation
  21. Another name given to this reaction is the Calvin Cycle
    Dark reaction
  22. The pigment chlorophyll is needed in order for this process to occur
    • Photosynthesis 
    • Light Reaction
  23. This reaction is an anaerobic process
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation 
    • Alcoholic Fermentation 
    • Fermentation
  24. This reaction requires carbon dioxide
    Dark reaction
  25. This reaction occurs within the mitochondria
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain 
    • Respiration
  26. This reaction make PGAL in order for glucose and other organic molecules to be made
    Dark Reaction
  27. This reaction produces pyruvic acid and ATP
  28. define catabolic
    breaking down
  29. define anabolic
    • building up 
    • (making new energy)
  30. What is ATP
    • provides energy for mechanical functions of cells 
    • Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed
  31. when does ADP occur
    occurs when ATP releases energy
  32. what is made in the stroma
  33. what does xylem do
    transport water from the roots to the leaves
  34. Explain what the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis is
    Sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll and water are used to produce oxygen, ATP, and NADPH
  35. Explain what the light independent reaction of photosynthesis is
    Occurs in the stroma, uses  ATP, NADPH from the light reaction and CO2 to make PGAL, which helps produce ADP, NADP+, and glucose
  36. What role does FADH2 and NADH play in cellular respiration
    Supply electrons to the Electron Transport Chain in order for 32 molecules of ATP to be made
  37. where does aerobic occur
  38. where does anaerobic
    occurs in cytoplasm
  39. Do plants or animals perform respiration? Explain?
    Both plants and animal perform respiration because they need energy to grow. The energy comes form the production of ATP through respiration (every living organism goes through aerobic)
  40. where does ATP occur
    occurs in chloroplast by photosynthesis
  41. Where else can ATP occur
    occurs in the cytosol by glycolysis (sugar breaking)
  42. Another place ATP occurs is
    occurs in mitochondria by cellular respiration
  43. where do autotrophs get their energy from
  44. Heterotrophs get their energy from where
    plants or other organisms
  45. when do plants make ATP
    during photosynthesis
  46. Cells of all organisms make ATP by breaking down what
    • carbohydrates
    • fats
    • proteins
  47. what does energy releasing mean
    bonds breaking
  48. what are 2 main types of energy releasing pathways
    anaerobic and aerobic
  49. what does both anaerobic and aerobic both rely on
  50. what are the 3 stages of cellular respiration
    • glycolysis 
    • citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
    • Electron Transport Chain
  51. where does glycolysis occur in
  52. during glycolysis what happens to glucose
    is broken down (sugar breaking)
  53. 2 stages of glycolysis
    energy requiring and energy releasing
  54. During glycolysis energy requiring what happens
    • 2 ATP molecules are needed
    • they need to break apart the bonds of glucose
  55. what happens in glycolysis during energy releasing
    they need to split glucose into 2 three-carbon pyruvate molecules 

    ATP and NADP ( electron carrier form as a result of the breakdown of glucose)
  56. During energy releasing in glycolysis where is most of the energy from glucose
    still contained in the pyruvate
  57. what is necessary for actual breaking of glucose
    2 ATP
  58. what is the krebs cycles also known as
    Citric Acid cycle
  59. Which stage of cellular respiration occurs when oxygen is present and where does it occur in
    • Krebs Cycle
    • occur in the mitochondria
  60. where does all of the carbon dioxide come from
    krebs cycle
  61. what is the outcome go glycolysis
    2 smaller pyruvate molecules
  62. what does krebs cycle require
  63. where does pyruvate come from
  64. The __ take place within the saclike____ that are located inside an organelle known as the_______.
    • light-dependent reactions
    • thylakoid
    • chloroplast
  65. Sunlight is captured by clusters of pigment molecules called _____ that contain several hundred________ molecules as well as a number of accessory pigments
    • photosystems
    • chlorophyll
  66. _______ is "split" to produce hydrogen ions, _________, and ________ that replace those lost by chlorophyll
    • water
    • oxygen gas
    • electrons
  67. An enzyme uses the energy created by a difference in changes across a membrane to add a phosphate group to ADP to form ______
  68. The light reactions use ____, _____, and _____ to produce ______, _____, and _____
    • water
    • ADP
    • NADP+

    • Oxygen
    • ATP
    • NADPH
  69. An organisms that is able to use a source of energy to produce food from simple inorganic molecules
  70. In the ________, or Calvin Cycle, the energy from the _____ and _______ produced in the light reactions is used to incorporate _________ into PGAL; which in turn is used to make ________ and other biologically important molecules
    • Dark reactions
    • ATP
    • NADPH
    • carbon dioxide
    • glucose
  71. A green pigment that is involved in light absorption for photosynthesis:
  72. An organism that obtains energy by eating other organisms
  73. Which reaction involves light energy converted to chemical energy, the photo part of photosynthesis, water molecules split, oxygen is given off.
    Light reaction
  74. Which reaction forms simple sugars, the synthesis part of photosynthesis, uses carbon dioxide
    Dark reaction
  75. In photosynthesis , _____ energy is converted into chemical energy
  76. Photosynthesis results in the production of the simple sugar _____ and free ____
    • glucose
    • electrons
  77. principal pigment of green plants
  78. pathway that produces energy rich sugars and removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
    Calvin Cycle
  79. colored substances that reflect or absorb light
  80. stage of photosynthesis that does not directly involve light
    dark reaction
  81. stage of photosynthesis in which the sun's energy is captured by plants and converted into energy storage compounds
  82. How could ash from a massive volcanic eruption affect the energy intake of nearby plants
    they block the sun
  83. What living things are able to trap the sun's energy to produce their own food
  84. Two molecules of _____ provide energy to begin glycolysis
  85. The word glycolysis means
    breaking down of glucose (sugar)
  86. Lactic acid fermentation allows muscles to make the ATP they need without oxygen , but it produces lactic acid, which makes the muscles ______ after intense exercising
  87. Alcoholic fermentation produces __________, which causes bread dough to rise and bubbles to form in beer and sparkling wine
    carbon dioxide
  88. Respiration requires what
  89. In the _______, the cell first breaks off one carbon atom, then releases it as carbon dioxide
    Krebs cycle
  90. The two electron carriers in the krebs cycle are
    • NADH 
    • FADH2
  91. A cell can generate energy in the form of ATP from
    almost any food compound
  92. release of energy from the breakdown of food molecules in the presence of oxygen
    aerobic respiration
  93. cycle that is the source of all the carbon dioxide you exhale
    Krebs cycle
  94. aerobic respiration takes place here in eukaryotic cells
  95. process by which yeasts convert pyruvic acid to alcohol and CO2
    alcoholic fermentation
  96. process that takes place in the body when the muscles run out of 02
    lactic acid fermentation
  97. process that allows glycolysis to continue to make ATP without O2
    anaerobic respiration
  98. series of reactions in which a molecule of glucose is broken down
  99. product of alcoholic fermentation that produces bubbles in beer and sparkling wine
    carbon dioxide
  100. molecule formed when electrons are passed to NAD+
  101. one-celled organisms that are used in baking and brewing
  102. Plants depend upon the activities of animals for a contenting supply of which substance
    carbon dioxide
  103. which process removes C02 to the atmosphere
  104. which process adds CO2 to the atmosphere
    aerobic respiration
  105. into which organic substance does photosynthesis convert the carbon of CO2
  106. After plants are eaten by animals, what process changes the carbon in these organic compounds back to CO2
    Krebs Cycle
  107. Explain why cells need glycolysis to produce pyruvic acid
    it is the starting material for aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  108. what is the total ATP produced from one glucose